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Full text of "The United States Army and Navy : including Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Hawaii"



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OVER 200 ILIUSTI ATIONS 



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THE 

UNITED STATES 
ARMY and NAVY 



INCLUDING 



CUBA, PUERTO RICO, THE PHILIPPINES AND HAWAII 



HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, DESCRIPTION, ILLUSTRATION, 

GEOGRAPHY, STATISTICS. 



MORE THAN 200 EXPERT PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS WITH APPROPRIATE EXPLANATORY TEXT. 



A. Complete Encyclopedic Portfolio. 



CHICAGO : 

DONOHUE, HENNEBERRY & CO. 

407-429 Dearborn St. 



COPYRIGHTED I 

BY 

DONOHUE, HENNEBEKRV & CO. 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 




HISTORY AND STATISTICS. 



NAVY. 



The American navy began with the act of Congress, October 13. 1775, authorizing the 
construction of two cruisers mounting respectively 10 and 14 guns. The battle of Lexing- 
ton had been fought six months before and independence was declared nine months later. 
By the end of a year 26 vessels were in active service with 536 guns. Although the colon- 
ists were fighting the so-called Mistress of the seas, brilliant service was rendered and the 
greatly increased American navy lost only 24 vessels while destroying 102 of the enemy. 
Washington and Adams favored an imperial navy but Jefferson and Madison were opposed 
At the opening of the second war against Great Britain the United States had only 13 war 
vessels against 1200 in the British navy, yet the Americans won some of the most brilliant 
victories in the annals of naval warfare. September 15, 1813, Commodore Perry on Lake 
Erie captured the first British fleet that had ever been taken. At the beginning of the Civil 
war in 1801, the Navy consisted of 42 vessels dispersed by the disloyal Secretary of the 
Navy all over the world. A new navy was built to blockade the southern coastline and 
to protect American commerce from Confederate privateers. March 9, 1862, the Monitor 
invented by John Ericsson defeated the ironclad Merrimac and revolutionized the construc- 
tion of naval vessels. At the close of the war, the United States had the largest and 
strongest navy in the world, consisting of 600 vessels of which 90 were ironclads The 
navy was afterward so neglected that in 1882, there were only 38 vessels fit for sea service 
and all of these were old in style and equipment. By act of Congress March 3 1883 
began a modern navy for the United States. The following comparative table shows the 
navies of the principal nations of the world at the beginning of the Spanish- American war 



NAVIES OF EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES 




CLASS OP 
VESSELS. 


>> 
u 

rt 
to 
c 
s 

kS 

u 

(0 

s 


to 

a 

a 

a 
a> 
O 


u 

□ 

u 


a 

a 
a 


a 

M 

m 

u 




>, 

rt 


to 

■a 



V 

£3 
<L> 

z 


a 




bo 
3 


en 


in 

(2 


n 

P. 
CO 


a 

V 

-a 
<u 
£ 

CO 


a, 
X 


V 

H 

CO 

41 

s 


Armored Sbipa 

Guns of same ]o'r T *' 


15 
IK 
286 

14 
104 
122 


8 
64 
60 
20 
108 
131 
1 

{< 
27 
24 
36 

6 
32 
11 
14 


61 
404 
1 ,056 
66 
138 
4,108 

14 

52 
28 
26 
18 
10 

M 

'17 
132 
196 
54 


31 

92 

330 

32 

248 

212 

8 

8 

9 

23 

26 

32 

9 

32 

75 

10 

68 

168 

17 


86 

745 

2,122 

126 

746 

2,220 

2 

4 

11 

83 

214 

216 

4 

12 
18 

29 
118 
144 
106 


25 
170 
346 
23 
90 
294 

" "26 
36 
118 
8 
58 
43 

9 
52 
121 
■70 


111 

38 

27 

12 

129 

151 

6 

7 

6 

58 

93 

301 

"36 
33 


2 

6 

12 

2 

28 

22 

1 

2 

2 

32 

54 

47 

1 

i 7^ 
/ 1 

7 


2 
13 
12 

44 
30 

""l7 
60 
27 


39 

382 
940 
24 
90 
258 

"46 
40 
112 
14 
21 
23 

20 
69 
125 
98 


11 

154 

168 

63 

146 

160 

2 

3 

9 

40 

73 

194 

2 

6 

2 

10 
57 
60 
19 


6 

21 

35 

7 

20 

38 

9 

9 

18 

15 

21 

28 


15 
108 
116 

8 
80 
6(1 

3 
32 
11 
20 
20 
76 
27 

j 80 


+33 
168 




513 




33 




192 




359 


Guns of same ■{ g "J? 

Unaruiored Gunboats 

Gnnsof same ]«"g 


"28 
41 

106 
4 

2ft 
23 

48 
41 
36 


' ' 'J21 
28 
262 


Guns of same -J ;? 'J? * ■■■ 

Training.ReceivingandStoreships, 

Transports. Tugs, Etc.. Elc. 
Guns of same 


1 

10 

36 


Torpedo Boats, No. 1 

Torpedo Boats, No. 2 


11 

5 


23 
27 


22 
14 


37 
5 


§18 




9 


Total No. of Guns, II 

80 Tons or over. . 

40 to 80 Tons 

20to -lOTons 


871 
o 

38 
H 
219 
471 


456 

""24 
105 
91) 
237 


5.985 

""87 
93 
312 


1,232 

""27 
84 
180 


6,426 

11 

94 

116 

1,488 

4.718 


1,209 
34 
35 
72 
£20 
846 


752 


178 


186 


1,925 


960 


190 


583 


1,640 


4 

42 
226 
480 






63 

89 

395 

1,388 


10 

no 

286 
554 






64 

188 


36 
102 
40 


28 
119 
39 


14 
89 

87 


124 
116 
343 




317 






1,180 


Seamen ..,.,.'! 

Marines Officers .."." 

" -Soldiers 


1,121 

11, ill in 
6:1 
330 


212 

1.862 

153 

1,910 


3,613 1,203 
41,600 15,713 

1,634 192 
31,690 2,506 


2,861 

53,755 

728 

17,430 


1.315 

21,283 
64 
600 


872 

7,360 

45 

2,000 


228 
6,200 

140 
1,500 


600 

4,747 

18 

600 


2,294 

N.812 

262 

3,000 


1,780 

15,600 

400 

9 680! 


CO 

n 
ft 

2! 



p 


309 
21,256 

92 

1.2011 


V2.000 

' (a) 
13,460 


Naval Reserves .. "..,>.' 


13,714 
1,150 


4.127 
4,400 


78,537 
87,000 


19,614 
?7,(l00 


64,774 
83,000 


23.262 
18,000 


10.247 
10,000 


8,068 
12,000 


6,004 
3,500 


13.368 
45,000 


26,460 
25,000 


22,857 
36,100 


15,760 



B KS?dudit'lloaiJlwt!r! r n Md ! 3 «'' 1 OI V"r ret monitors, t Includes 6 fun boats now buildin 
a, lull det , mar,°„ a e' , ; i r:^ ml ^ n & L N .°. .."^'. h ' d ' n «"ns on torpedo boats. _ , Includes marine offi, 



r> i. ""*""'"(? k""=> "" 101 pcuo uoais. ii includes marine omcers. 

G., Heavy Guns or Primary Batteries. S. B., Secondary Batteries or Ligh 



„ - ' ■ - .... ■■■,,,/.;: uuais now D 
(a) Includes marine omcers 

Guns. -" ■"■< ""«"«<*• .t *- 

T^!'!*! n° a ! S x'°- '-;>"', h "l< > s Torpedo Boats and Torpedo Catchers, over 100 feet in length 
Torpedo Boats No. 2. -Includes Torpedo Boats under 100 feet in length. 



ARHY. 



The United States standing army recruited by voluntary enlistment began with the or- 
ganization of the war department, December 7, 1789. A provisional standing force of 
10, 000 men was authorized by Congress in 1798. Fear of war with Prance caused the auth- 
orization of 40,000 regulars and the same number of volunteers. Danger of war passing 
away, the force fell to 10,000 men. In 1812, 25,000 regulars and 50,000 volunteers were 
called for. At the close of the war the army was again reduced to 10,000 men. There 
was an increase during the Florida war between 1835 and 1842. In Mav 1846, at the be- 
ginning of the Mexican war, the army was 7,244, in number, Gen. Taylor having with him 
in Texas only, 3,554. Before the close of the war, the number had been increased to 
29,000 regular and 50,000 volunteers. At the close of the war the number was again de 
creased to 10,000 men. April 15, 1801, the first levy of the civil war for 75,000 men was 
made and it was composed of militia organizations from the several states. Before the 
close of the year, the army was increased to 180,000 men ; in 1862 to 637,000; in 1863 to 
918,000 and before the close of the war to more than a million. The number of men act- 
ually engaged in the field was 1,135,416. Soon after the close of the war, the army was 
reduced to 25,000. Up to the opening of the Spanish American war, there had been only 
four Lieutenant generals, George Washington appointed July 3, 1798; Ulysses S. Grant, 
March 12, 1864; Phillip H. Sheridan, Nov. 1, 1883; John M. Schofield Aug. 14, 1888.' 
The first call for troops in the Spanish- American war, was made by President McKinley 
April 23, 1898, for 125,000 men. 



THE WAR STRENGTH OF THE GREAT POWERS. 



COUNTRIES. 



EUROPE: 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium .. 

Bulgaria 

Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Greece 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Roumania 

Russia 

Servia 

Spain 

Sweden and Norway- 



Capable of 
Military Duty, 



9.800,000 
1,460,000 

700,000 

490,000 
9,550,010 
12,000.000 

495,000 

7,5110.000 

1,050,000 

1.4011,000 

22,000.000 

600,000 
4,200.000 
1,600,000 



Army and 
Reserves. 



1,667,755 
170,229 
222,391 
127,263 

3,539,600 

4,746,972 
215,770 

1,961.014 
228,940 
259,720 

4,849,516 
273,870 

1,279,642 
240,077 



COUNTRIES. 



EUROPE-Continued : 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United Kingdom (including 

India, Canada* Australia 

ASIA: 

China 

Japan .... 

SOUTH AMERICA: 

Argentine Republic .. .. 

Brazil 

Chile 

Venezuela 

MEXICO 
UNITED STATES 



Capable of 
Military Duty. 



720.000 
8,0 ci, mm 

12,000,000 

80,000,000 
10,000,000 

650.000 

3,0110,1100 

700.000 

420,000 

3.0011.000 

111,149,598 



Army and 
Reserves, 



493 238 
022,127 



1,000,060 
341,529 

69,173 

11(1,7113 
89 874 
275.454 
I6VI38 
118.976 



CUBA. 

Cuba has an area of 41,655 square miles, comparing most closely with Ohio, which has 
an area of 41,060 square miles. It is a trifle smaller than Tennessee or Virginia, a trifle 
larger than Kentucky, and five-sevenths the size of Illinois. Including the adjacent Isle 
de Pinos and some smaller islands, the area would be increased to 45,883 square miles. 

Though Cuba closely resembles both Ohio and Kentucky in area, it resembles only 
Kentucky in population, having had, before the beginning of the Spanish butchery, a total 
of 1,631, 696 inhabitants, as against Kentucky's 1,858,635. Only about one-sixth of Ken- 
tucky's inhabitants are colored, while nearly one-third of Cuba's people are negroes. Hut, 
taking into consideration the similarity of mountain regions, of area, and of races, probably 
Cuba is more nearly comparable to Kentucky than any other State of the union. Havana 
has a population of 250,000. Other important cities are : Mantanzas, 87,760; Santiago de 
Cuba, 71,307; Cienfuegos. 65,067; and Puerto Principe, 46,641. 



CUBA— Continued. 



Cuba was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage, in 1492. 

The first organized attempt made by the Spaniards to colonize Cuba was in 1511 by 
Diego Velasquez, who was sent by Diego, son of Columbus, with a force from San Domingo. 
He founded a settlement at Baracoa. In 1519 Havana was founded. 

During 387 years, Spanish oppression has been unlimited and unmitigated in Cuba, 
except during the year 1762, when Havana was captured and occupied by the English. 

In the century between 1770 and 1870, Spanish statistics show that Cuba paid nearly 
$1,500,000,000 into the royal treasury of Spain. 

In thirty years following 1827, Cuba paid directly into the Spanish treasury at Madrid 
$90,000,000, at the rate of $10 per capita. 

In 1867 the tax reached the rate of $25 per capita. 

At the breaking out of the ten-year war in 1868, Cuba was taxed $26,000,000 a year. 

From 1873 to 1880, the tax averaged $50,000,000 a year. 

From 1880 to 1890, the tax was about $32, 000, 000- a year. 

Since then the annual tax has never been less than $26,000,000. 

The per capita tax of the Cubans, in the country districts, has not been less than $16 38, 
to which was added a municipal tax for those in the towns. This tax is twice what is paid 
by Spaniards in Spain/and thrice that of the citizens of the United States. 

Near two thousand millions have been paid to Spain in direct taxation since 1850. 

The public debt put on Cuba is nearly $200,000,000, or about $120 per capita, of 
which not one cent has been spent in Cuba. 

The Cubans were compelled to pay $18,000,000 a year interest on a debt with which 
they had nothing to do and for which they received no benefit. 

In 1896, the debt represented a mortgage of about $210, at a yearly interest of $12, 
for every inhabitant of the island, although only $50 is as high as the average income of the 
people ever rose. 

Starving Ireland, famine-stricken Russia and suffering Armenia never presented a more 
deplorable sight or called for the help of civilization more urgently than the Spanish policy 
of oppression and extermination in Cuba. 

Before the blockade the condition was ghastly. Even then destitution, desolation, and 
death had invaded homes in every part of the island. Families who had never before known 
privations, subsisted on one meal a day. Mothers watclud their young die for want of milk. 
From Havana to Matanzas there was an unbroken line of filthy settlements, from which 
grim spectres once human erawled forth and supplicated with bony arms and claw-like fin- 
gers for alms that were seldom forthcoming. 

In Matanzas City itself the public streets were full of half-naked skeletons clamoring 
for bread. At Perico only 300' were left of 4,000. At San Pedro little children were hud- 
dled together in the damp corners shaking with cold and silently starving, their abdomens 
distended, their hair gone and their feet swelled. 

The streets of the towns were crowded with living skeletons that were once comely 
matrons and maidens; little children with emaciated bodies and skinny faces belong to the 
grave rather than to living human beings; weeping mothers with averted faces holding up 
their shriveled babes, as though to appeal for pity; men who have already the seal of death 
set upon their bony faces, and whose swollen knees and feet and cavernous eyes tell of their 
terrible vigil with famine; husband and wife, slowly dying side by side, and awaiting with 
a hopeless resignation the fate that had already overtaken thousands around them. No pen 
can do justice to those all too real victims of hunger; no heart so cold or unfeeling as to 
deny them sympathy. 

In November 27, 1897, Consul-General Lee reported : "In Los Fosos (the ditches), 
in Havana, 400 women and children were thrown on the ground heaped pell-mell as ani- 
mals, some in a dying condition, others sick, others dead. " Deaths averaged forty or fifty, 
and on the average there were only ten days of life for each person. No one was given 



food until after remaining eight days in the ditches. During these eight days they were 
obliged to subsist on the food which the dying had refused. 

In Sagua la Grande Consul Barker reported there are 25,000 starving people. Whole 
families, without clothing to hide nakedness, are sleeping on the ground without bedding of 
any kind. Fully 50 per cent, are ill, without medical attention or medicine. 

Consul Brice found in the City of Mantanzas a family of seventeen in an old limekiln, 
all dead but three, and these barely alive. 

Consul Barker of Sagua la Grande reported that the military commander positively 
refused to allow the reconcentrados to procure fuel with which to cook the food supplied 
by the United States. 

Consul Brice at Mantanzas, on June 18, 1898, reported that in his district there were 
90,000 thousand people in an actual starving condition. In addition, he said there were 
thousands of families of the better classes living on one meal a day. The daughter of a 
former Governor is begging food on the streets. 

In the City of Santa Clara the number of deaths in 1897 was 6,981 out of a total pop- 
ulation of 14,000. 

On January 8, 1898, Consul Lee reported: "The reconcentrado order of General 
Weyler transformed 400,000 self-supporting people, principally women and children, into a 
multitude. Their homes were burned, their fields destroyed, and their live stock driven 
away or killed. I estimate that probably 100,000 of the rural population of the Provinces 
of Pinar del Rio, Habana, Mantanzas and Santa Clara have died of starvation. In some 
parts of the island I am told there is scarcely any food for soldiers and citizens, and that 
even cats are used for food, selling for 30 cents apiece." 

On December 7, 1897, General Lee said . "If any young girl came in (to Los Fosos) 
who was nice looking she was infallibly condemned to the most abominable of traffics." 

. " An American consul wrote to me on the 23d day of November that in his province 
100,000 had perished of starvation, and he knew it to be true that in his consular district 
50,000 had perished. I saw him the other day administering charity given by the great- 
hearted people of the United States, and he told me that thirty-six mayors of towns, cities, 
and villages had put the number of deaths at 20,000 greater than he had written me. 

I had an interview with a highly educated and intelligent gentleman, who is to-day the 
mayor of the city of Santa Clara. This gentleman was for sixteen months a surgeon in the 
insurgent army. He spoke good English. He was evidently a great deal in sympathy 
with the people of the island, although holding office under the autonomist government, 
which, when practicable, had put Cubans in power who had some sort of affiliation with the 
common people. 

I said to him, ' ' Doctor, I want to ask you some plain questions, and you can at any 
time tell me whether you think they are improper or impertinent, and can refuse to answer 
them if you like. What I want is information. " I asked him, " What is the population of 
Santa Clara?" He said, "Between twelve and fifteen thousand." I said, "About what 
number of reconcentrados have perished of starvation or diseases immediately incident to 
famine in Santa Clara?" He said, "Over 6,000, and still the work is going on." (From 
speech of Senator H. D. Money of Mississippi, March 28, 1898.) 

" I saw 400 women and children dying on stone floors, in an indescribable state of 
emaciation and disease; and sick children, naked as they came into the world." (From 
speech of Senator Proctor of Vermont, March 17, 1898.) 

" Spain is a Christian nation; she has set up more crosses in more lands, beneath mors 
skies, and under them has butchered more people than all the nations on earth put together. 
(From speech of Senator Thurston of Neb., March. 24, 1898.) 

" In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered Amer- 
ican interests, which give us the right and duty to speak and act; the war in Cuba must 
stop." (From President McKinley's message to Congress, April, 11, 1898.) 



HAWAII. 



PUERTO RICO. 



There are twelve islands in the Hawaiian group, of which the largest are Hawaii, Maui 
Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Niihau, Kahoolawe. 

Total area of the islands is 6, 640 square miles. Of this Hawaii alone occupies 4.210 
square miles. The others are, necessarily, very small. 

In 1884 the population was 80,578. In 1890 it was 89,990. In 1896, according to 
the census, the population had increased to 109,020. Of the population in 1896 31,019 
were natives, 8,425 were half-castes, 21,616 Chinese, 24,407 Japanese, 15,191 Portuguese, 
3,086 Americans 2, 250 British, 1,432 Germans, 378 Norwegians, 101 French, 455 Polyne- 
sians and 600 other foreigners. 

The islands were discovered by Captain Cook more than a century ago. At that time 
they had a native population of 200,000. These natives are closely allied to the Maories of 
New Zealand. 

The capital of the country is Honolulu, with a population of 29,920. It is situated on 
the island of Oahu. 

Exports from the islands in 1896 were: Sugar, $15,932,000; rice, $195,000; bananas, 
$125,000. The imports are chiefly groceries and provisions, clothing, grain, timber, 
machinery, hardware and cotton goods. 

Ninety-two per cent of all the trade of the islands is with the United States. 

Revenues to the government of Hawaii in 1896 aggregated $1,997,818 and the expendi- 
tures $1,904,191. 

Steamship navigation connects the islands with the American continent, Australasia 
and China. In the islands of Hawaii, Maui and Oahu there are seventy-one miles of rail- 
road and 250 miles of telegraph. 

Nearly every private house in Honolulu has a telephone. 

On July 4, 1894, the present republic was proclaimed and in 1897, the Hawaiian legis- 
lature voted for annexation to the United States. 

Sanford B. Dole was elected president in 1894 for a term of six years. 

The climate of Hawaii is one of the mildest and most healthful in the world. So 
equable is it that there is no word for weather in the native language. The mean tempera- 
ture is 75 degrees Fahrenheit. - 

The origin of the islands is volcanic. They are very mountainous and the valleys are 
extremely fertile. The uplands are better adapted for sheep raising than for tillage. The 
mountains are covered with dense forests. 

Our winter is the rainy season in Hawaii. A more bracing climate may be found up 
in the mountains. An hour's ride from the capital will give a lower temperature. 

Three mountains tower above the sea from the Island of Hawaii. They are Mauna 
Kea, 13,953 feet; Mauna Loa, an active volcano, 13,700 feet, and Mauna Hualalai, 7,822 
feet. Vegetation extends to a height of 12,000 feet on Mauna Kea. 

Hawaii, the island, is subject to earthquakes, but they are slight and seldom do any 
damage. The volcanoes, spouting for ages, have covered large areas of the land with lava, 
upon which the natives raise a fine qualit}- of sweet potato. Mauna Loa has had numerous 
eruptions — the last in 1873. During the eruptions of 1855 and 1843 more than 55,000,000,- 
000 cubic feet of lava was poured from Loa's craters. 

Herds of wild cattle roam in the forests of this island. ' 

There was never better hunting than in the Sandwich Islands. Wild swine, snipe, plover 
and ducks are found in abundance. 

Cocoanuts, bananas, bread fruit, taro and kalo are indigenous. From the last named is 
made the famous "pot, " the favorite food of the islanders. 

Productions are sugar, rice, coffee, cotton, sandalwood, tobacco arrowroot, corn, wheat, 
tapioca, oranges, lemons, bananas, tamarinds, breadfruit, guavas, potatoes, yams, fungus, 
wool, hides, tallow and many kinds of wood. 



Puerto Rico is much smaller than Cuba, with an area of 3.550 square miles, 3-et it 13 
nearly three times the size of Rhode Island, with an area of 1,250 square miles. It is half 
again as large as Delaware, and just five-sevenths the size of Connecticut. 

The population of Puerto Rico was reported in 1887 to be 813.937, with about the 
same proportion of negroes as in Cuba. It therefore comes closest to West Virginia in 
population, that state having 762,794 inhabitants, though the colored population of West 
Virginia is infinitely less in proportion. It is capable of developing a rich reciprocal trade 
with the United States under civilized methods of government. Its forests are composed 
of fine cedar, Lignum Vitae, logwood, cabinet woods, ebony and mahogany. The soil is 
fertile, but little cultivated. 

. A variety of highland rice requiring no " flooding " is the staple food of the laborers. 
Sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton, corn and potatoes are the market crops. Grazing is quite an 
industry, fresh meat being shipped to St. Thomas. Gold, iron, copper, coal and salt are 
found. Slavery was abolished in 1873. 

Houses in the towns have flat roofs to catch water and for recreative purposes. In 
the country the houses are built ten feet from the ground on piles. This is to avoid the 
dampness. The siesta is a universal favorite, shopping and visiting being done only at night. 



THE PHILIPPINES. 



The Philippines cover 114,326 square miles, all but 2,000 square miles of the total 
Asiatic colonial possessions of Spain. The total number of the islands is about 1,200. 
They are small with the exception of Luzon. Luzon, or Lucon, as it is called in Spanish, 
has an area of 40, 024 square miles, has a population of more than 5,000,000 and is the 
source of the largest revenue in the group, and has an area of 52,650 square miles. 

The group of islands may be compared in area to California or Japan. The principal 
island, Luzon, i3 about the size of Illinois or about a fourth larger than Cuba. 

The Philippines were the last discovery of Magellan and have ever since been claimed 
by Spain. The discovery was made March 31, 1521, and on April 22, 1522, Magellan was 
killed by a native of Mactan, one of the smaller islands. His ship, the Victoria, which 
made the first voyage around the world, was taken back to Spain by Sebastian Cano, who 
succeeded in command. They have been subject to Spain since 1660, but it was not' until 
■ 1829 that Spanish rule was finally acknowledged. To this day the Negrita tribes in Min- 
danao have no communication with the Spanish. 

The islands produce hemp, sugar, coffee, copra, tobacco leaf, cigars and indigo. Gold 
Mining is an industry of Luzon. There is coal in Zebu and an output of 5,000 tons per 
month. There are also iron, copper, sulphur and antimony in unknown quanties. 

In 1894 there were produced 8,000,000 pounds of hemp, 6,000,000 pounds of sugar, 
2,000,000 pounds of tobacco and nearly 300,000,000 cigars. 

Next to Cuba, the Philippines were Spain's most prescious colonial possession, and are 
capable of being made even more valuable than the wonderful pearl of the Antilles. They 
are the third sugar producing region of the world. Philippine coffee pays its producer a 
net profit of $150 a ton. The islands as yet are in the initial stage of their development, 
though they have been under the influence of a supposed civilization for more than 300 
years. For every acre in cultivation there are 10,000 untouched by the plow. In the for- 
ests of the Philippines are vast quantities of ebony, logwood, ironwood, gum trees and 
cedars. 

Owing to their length north and south these islands possess a considerable diversity of 
climate. Their upper end comes within a few miles of reaching the northern edge of the 
tropic zone. 

From November to April the temperature, though often reaching 82 degrees, is not 
oppressive, and the nights and mornings are generally cool. During the rainy season, which 
continues from May to November, the heat is very oppressive and enervating, and is 
unhealthy for strangers. 

In January the thermometer has been known to go as low as 60 degrees above zero, 
but-usually it ranges during the dead of our winter months from 65 to 75. 



TERRITORIAL EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The United States has been increasing- its area in square miles ever since the administration 
• of Thomas Jefferson. In its original form the nation covered but 827,844 square miles. The 
following table shows the territory gained by the United States : 

Name: Sq. Miles. Year. President. 

Louisiana (purchase) 1,171,931 1803 Jefferson (Democrat) 

Florida (purchase) .'. . .. 59,268 1819 Monroe (Democrat) 

Texas (annexation) 376, 133 1845 Polk (Democrat) 

Mexican (cession) 545, 783 . . 1848 ...... . Polk (Democrat) 

Gadsden purchase 45,535 1853 Pierce (Democrat) 

Alaska (purchase) 577,390 1867 Johnson (Republican) 



Total acquired 2,776,040 

The acquisition of the Hawaiian Islands, with their 6,640 square miles of area and popula- 
tion of 109,020, was claimed as the entering wedge for the seizure of the island possessions of 
Spain. Leaving Cuba out entirely, with its total area of 45,883 square miles, the United States 
would in the pursuance of the new policy, take possession of 119,806 square miles of territory in 
settling the cost of the war with Spain. Porto Rico has an area of 3,550 square miles and a 
population of 80S, 708. The Philippines cover 114,326 square miles and support a population of 
7,000,000. The Sulus Islands have an area of 950 square miles and a population of 75,000. The 
Carolines and Pelews have an area of 560 square miles and a population of 36,000, and the 
Ladrone Islands 420 square miles and 10,172 population. 

CUBA— INDEPENDENCE RECOGNIZED. 

April 18th the following joint resolution was adopted in Congress, the Senate agreeing 

by a vote of 42 to 35, and the House by 310 to 6 : 
Joint Resolution for the recognition of the independence of the people of Cuba, demanding 
that the government of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the Island of 
Cuba, and to withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters, and direct- 
ing the President of the United States to use the land and naval forces of the United 
States to carry these resolutions into effect : 
WHEREAS, The abhorrent conditions which have existed for more than three years in the 



TYPICAL ARGUnENT AGAINST TERRITORIAL EXPANSION. 

In considering' the new policy of "territorial expansion," which looks to the annexation of 
one group of islands five thousand miles distant from Washington and another group ten 
thousand miles distant, it is well to reflect on what it signifies. 

1. It means a large standing 1 army — certainly not less than 200,000 men. The support of this 
force, a considerable part of it at far-remote stations, would make a fine addition to the cost of 
our 1,000,000 pensioners ! A large standing army is a standing menace to liberty. 

2. It means an enormously increased navy — not merely enlarged, as it should be to meet our 
present needs, but a navy rivalling' that of England. 

3. It means expensive fortifications of the chief harbors of these islands, when our own 
seaboard is most inadequately guarded against the attack of any first-class naval power. 

And all these things mean taxes — taxes— more taxes! 

4. It means the introduction into our republican system of the despotic principle. Military 
government, or an oligarchy as in Hawaii, is a form of despotic rule. Is it well to familiarize ou r 
people with this ? Do we want to set up Satrapies for the sous of Somebodies? Would it be wise 
or safe thus to reinforce our already powerful plutocracy with a shoulder-strap oligarchy ? 

5. It means more rotten boroughs to supply Senators and Presidential electors for the party 
in power whenever the exigencies of home politics shall require them. 

6. It means the absolute abandonment of the Monroe doctrine. We can no longer warn 
European powers out of this hemisphere if we invade the South Pacific and Oceaniea for conquest. 
It is not Asia but Europe in Asia that we shall have to deal with in this rivalry in land-grabbing. 

7. It means a stultification of the basic principles of this Republic — the right of every people 
to Freedom and Independence, government with the consent of the Governed. 

ADd all for what ? Coaling stations ? We have them already, or can secure them in any 
just settlement of the war. Trade ? The consumption of one of our smaller states exceeds that 
of all these islands combined. Outposts for defense ? Rather outposts to defend ! 

Have we not troubles enough of our own '? De we need to go abroad for problems? Is our 
magnificent continent so cramped that we need to annex leper colonies and Malay aggregations 
at the end of the world? 

" Only common sense is necessary " to banish this wild dream of imitation imperialism and 
crazy " expansion." 



Islands of Cuba, so near our own borders, have shocked the moral sense of the people of the 
United States, have been a disgrace to civilization, culminating as they have, in the destruction 
of a United States battleship, with 266 of its officers and crew, while on a friendly visit to the 
harbor of Havana, and cannot longer be endured, as has been set forth by the President of the 
United States in his message to Congress of April 11, 1898, upon which the action of Congress 
was invited; therefore 

RESOLVED. First, that the people of the Island of Cuba are and of right ought to be 
free and independent. 

SECOND— That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the government of the 
United States does hereby demand, that the government of Spain at once relinquish its author- 
ity and government in the Island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba 
and Cuban waters. 

THIRD— That the President of the United States be, and he is hereby directed and empow- 
ered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to call into actual service 
of the United States the militia of the several States, to such extent as may be necessary to 
carry these resolutions into effect. 

FOURTH — That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to exercise 
sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the pacification thereof, and 
assert its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the 
island to its people. 

DECLARATION OF WAR. 

The following joint resolution was passed by the American Congress April 25, 1898, with- 
out a dissenting vote : 
A Bill declaring- that war exists between the United States of America and the King-dom of 
Spain. 

Be it enacted, etc.: 

FIRST — That war be, and the same is hereby declared to exist, and that war has existed 
since the 21st day of April, A. D. 1898, including said day, between the United States of America 
and the Kingdom of Spain. 

SECOND— That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and empow- 
ered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States and to call into the actual 
service of the United States the militia of the several States to such an extent as may be neces- 
sary to carry this act into effect. 



TYPICAL ARGUMENT FOR FEDERAL IMPERIALISM 

We cannot escape our destiny, and we do not want to. We have a mission, and must accom- 
plish it for liberty and humanity. Our institutions, our freedom, have been a lesson to the 
world, and such liberty is the world's only hope. It is our duty to help the world to such liberty 
not to stand behind a safe rampart and give them our worthless moral sympathy, but to take 
part in bestowing human rights on human beings. 

It will elevate the standard of government service, and give us trained statesmen. The 
nation will demand the services of its best men, and it will honor them with its confidence and 
its esteem. In short we shall advance to a higher stage of national evolution and emerge from 
our present comparative isolation into a commanding influence in the affairs of humanity and 
civilization. 

The Louisiana purchase, without the authority of Congress and in violation of the Constitu- 
tion, as Jefferson frankly admitted, is a superb illustration of his exalted devotion to imperative 
duty and lofty principle in this respect. Had he hesitated for one instant in that supreme hour 
the whole history of the two Americas, North and South, as it is written to-day, might have been 
reversed, and the European powers, not the United States, possibly would be, in these closing 
years of the century, the dominant authority in this hemisphere. Next to the Revolution the 
acquisition of Louisiana is the most stupendous event in our annals. The two combined, in the 
mighty and beneficent results that have flowed from them, have changed the destinies of a large 
part of the human race. 

The conquest of an Asiatic island belonging to Spain, or any other country with which the 
United States may be at war, and its retention is not an interference with the internal concerns 
of any European power. Tiie islands in the Pacific are not a part of Europe. They are not the 
exclusive domain of European powers. They are given no cause for offense if one of those islands 
becomes in a legitimate manner an American possession. They never have declared themselves 
protectors of the Pacific and announced that the United States must make no establishments 

there. 

Nor if the United States retains the Philippines can European nations declare that the 
Monroe doctrine has been abandoned, for the United States, by asserting that Europeans must 
not intermeddle in American affairs, does not renounce the right to acquire by war, cession or 
otherwise possessions in other parts of the globe, to give its liberty to those who have it not. and 
to spread the government of the people for the people and by the people over the oppressed of 
the earth. 




THE MAINE. 

The attention of the American people and all the world beside was directed toward the splendid man-of-war Maine from the day when the floating fortress 
steamed into Havana harbor to represent the United States in Cuban waters. The Maine was a second-class, twin-screw battleship, built at a cost ot $2,500,000 
and commissioned September 17, 1895. Her dimensions were as follows : Length, 318 feet ; breadth, 57 feet ; draft, 21 feet 6 inches ; displacement, 6,682 tons ; 
horse power 9 293 j speed 17+ knots ; armament, main battery, four 10-inch and six 6-inch guns ; secondary battery, seven 6-pbunder and eight 1-pound,,' rapid 
fire guns and four Gatlings ; armor, on the sides 12 inches thick, on the turrets 8 inches, and on the barbettes from 10 to 12 inches ; crew, 34 officers and 3,0 men. 
The' destruction of the Maine by the explosion of a sub marine mine in Havana harbor leaves only one other warship of her class, the Texas, in the navy. 




OFFICERS OF THE MAINE. 



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The Wreck Of the Maine-Abo** the f °« -^ ^ murky tide. Human 

Carrion birds wheel and circle about it Setting ever and anon upon '^^Xm^f marks. On the Prado, the ■military band plays a lively a.r and crowds saunter to 
jackals on the wharves of the city laugh as they catch sigh of U : and gloat o er the ra. n U ^ ^^ ^ ^^ the doomed t The laugh of the jackal 

J and fro, officers and civilians mingling in the cool of th : even ng but s ' le ^ ™ e j£* nea rer-to the northward, the horizon is black with the smoke of a mighty war 
dies away in a snarl of fear. To the eastward, the egions of ^™ ez ^^^7^ p p g eal . still its shadow continues to fall across the dreary waste of waters, across the 
r\ trtf andtLEr/edS.rntiU anlwe Z £?£# ^T^oU^C^, from the peak of that solitary fighting mast the star-spangled banner shal. 
rksl i forth the signal" THE MAINE IS AVENGED!" 




Heroes Of the Maine. — Ten survivors of the Maine disaster are here shown en route from Key West to New York. Oscar Anderson, whose arm is in a sling, 
is standing. John Kane is sitting on a sea-chest, with his right arm in a sling. Theodore Mack's head can be seen above Kane's ; John Coffey is in front of Mack. Charles 
Pitcher is opposite the "port," or window. John Pauck is next to him, while Washington Mattison, a colored lad, is sitting in front of Pauck. William Allen and 
D. Cronin are sitting next to Mattison, and J. E.~ White can be seen in the background. Frank Cahill and John Haffren are not included in the picture. Both are very badly 
hurt and are on crutches — Cahill, because of a deep cut on one of his feet, and Cronin because of a dislocated knee-cap and a badly wrenched leg. J. E. White had both 
ankles broken and was rescued just at the time when he was about to sink for the last time in the suction caused by the sinking of the battle-ship. All of the men declare 
that the Maine was not blown up by an " Internal Explosion." 



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HARBOR AND DEFENSES OF SANTIAGO DE CUBA. 

This ancient capital of Cuba sprang into notoriety by the entrace of Cevera"s fleet into its harbor. Once before it became notorious as the place where so many 
of the ill fated crew of the Virginius w. re executed. Santiago is the second city of Cuba in population (71,000). It is on the south side of the island, near the 
eastern end, and is five hundred miles from Havana by direct line. Its inner harbor is spacious and deep with a narrow and tortuous entrance, which a hostile fleet 
would scarcely attempt to force, for some of the batteries are very close to the channel. The fort in the center of the picture is seventy feet above water level, the 
fort at the left about forty feet, so neither could be engaged successfully by battleships at short distance. The narrowest part of the channel is the scene of Lieuten- 
ant Hobson's bold exploit in sinking the collier Merrimac to obstruct the passage. However, the tortuous nature of the channel which effectually hid Cervera's fleet 
from view, can not be shown in this engraving. If safety was the main object of the Spanish admiral, his end was at least temporarily attained, for no better natural 
defense exists than the one here shown at the harbor of Santiago. 




CUTTING THE CABLE OF CIENFUEQOS- 

To sever communications between Havana and the rest of the world by dividing- the cables as Admiral Dewey did at Manila, has been the object of numerals daring 
adventures. In the view here shown, the launches of the United States cruiser " Marblehead," and of the gun-boat '■ Nashville.'' are engaged in grappling for the cable at 
Cienfuegos, Cuba. They were all the time under a perfect volcano of tire from the shore. The gunboats and launches returned the fire with great execution, silencing some 
of the most active batteries. One American was killed and six wounded. Later two of the wounded men died. It is.hard for one to believe that any circumstance can make 
a man more truly heroic or deserving of greater laudation than these daring yet essential feats, in which no individual receives special mention or praise. Another act, 
perhaps requiring no greater courage, is singled out to make the men an undying name in the history of their country as heroes of the war. After several attempts the cables 
at Cienfuegos were cut, and Cuba was not only blockaded but isolated from the rest of the world. 




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THE HASSACHUSETTS. 

This first-class, twin-screw battleship is a fighting machine of the most formidable type constructed by any nation up to this time. She was built at 
a cost of $3,0211.000, and commissioned June 10, 1896. Her dimensions are as follows : Length, 348 feet ; breadth, 69 feet 3 inches; draft, 24 feet; displacement, 
10,288 tons; horsepower, 10,400; speed. 16.2 knots per hour ; armament, main battery, four 13-inch, eight 8-inch and four 6-inch guns; secondary battery, srx 
1-pounder and twenty 6-pounder rapid fire guns and four Gatlings ; armor, 18 inches on the sides, from 6 to 17 inches on the turrets, and from 8 to 17 
inches on the barbettes. Her crew comprises 38 officers and 424 men. 




GUNNER'S QANQ, MASSACHUSETTS. 

This view shows a company of gunners at target practice handling a four-inch breech-loading rifle , on th e gun deck. J^™^ J^^^LTlieJ 
it is generally admitted by naval officers of all countries, that Americans are the best gunners ™**^^ ^ in ° naval wa , This accounts for 
compensates for the smallness of pur navy. More depends upon the accuracy of the gunners than any o ^.^ ^^ ^^ are re 

Admiral Dewey's victory at Manilla being without a parallel in history. The tanned gunner « u r*3J' ^ The Spanish .American war demon- 

warded by promotion and an undying place in his country's history. Yet the gunner gets less than half the pay of the chapla 
etrated beyond doubt that marksmanship is the chief element of success in naval warfare. 




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THE MIANTONOMOH. 

The construction of this double- turreted, twin-screw iron monitor was begun in 1874, but the vessel was not commissioned until October 27, 1891. The purpose 
of this type of warship is mainly coast defense. Two 10-inch breech loading rifles are mounted in each of the Miantonomoh's turrets, and she carries besides a secondary 
battery, consisting of two 6-pounder, two 3-pounder, and two 1 -pounder rapid fire guns. Armor, Hi inches thick, protects the turrets, and the side armor is 7 inches 
thick. The length of the vessel is 259 feet 6 inches ; breadth, 55 feet 10 inches ; draft, 14 feet 6 inches ; displacement, 3,990 tons ; horse power, 1,600 ; speed, 12 
knots ; crew, 13 officers and 136 men. 




PU "INQ A TEN-INCH QUN IN A TURRET ON THE U. S. MONITOR MIANTONOMOH. 

PLACINU A IfcIN ii-N^n "u .._•_. .. „ spf>ondarv bat terv of two 6 pounders, and two 3 -pounders rapid-firing 

Tins powerful little vessel has a main battery of four ten-inch ^" J^^ e heTvy guns TrI monitor being built 'so low in the water, can not ride 
guns. This photograph shows the construction of the turret and the manner of mounting the hea rjun m arksmanship of the enemy, they are very 

safely the heavy S e°as and so are valuable chiefly in coast defense Smce they jiesent *™ h » ™* ed for them wheu Ericsson . s mOQlt or disabled the Mernmac 
formidable in battle, but they have not had the influence on ^7^^™^ to be of most value, and it is predicted that during the coming 
and saved the federal fleet in the civil war. Swift cruisers armed with P°» e * u * f ™ Bee ^ ccur of aim aad destructive power at long distances is the criterion 
century armored vessels will be as absolute in the navy as armored soldieis aie in the aimy. aco , 
now set for future success in naval warfare. 



' 




SUBMARINE GUN ON THE 



TORPEDO BOAT ERICSSON. 



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Something of the ponderous mechanism of modern implements of war can be seen in this photograph of a submarine gun Themventivs g emus of me nis 
turned to methods of sinking ships and in protecting them. These strange projectiles can be sent a third ot a mile under water . >a gli t again »t the hull or an an- 
tagonist, exploding a torpedo which no vessel can be constructed to withstand. In similar manner aerial torpedo* are being ^^"^^£,,5 ' 
issues of naval war depend entirely upon the accuracy or luck of the gunner's aim. Hudson Maxim, brother of Hiram Maxim, mventor of the nu ga^ne gun, beai ng 
his name, has invented an aerial torpedo containing half a ton of gun-cotton, which can be thrown nine miles destroying everything within a radius , of two hundied 
feet. Gunners receive only one hundred dollars a month in contrast to the chaplains, paymasters, lieutenants and surgeons, who «^f£ «"£*£ J™ ™^ 
and yet the destinies of nations depend mostly upon the skill of the gunners. So far, the submarine torpedo boats have made no records lor themselves except 
practice, but it is just to say that they have never yet had a fair test in actual battle. 




THE MINNEAPOLIS. 

The Minneapoli? i-s a triple-screw protected cruiser, the fastest warship of her class in the world, built at a cost of $2,690,000, and commissioned December 
13, 1894. Her dimensions are as follows : Length, 412 feet ; breadth, 58 feet 2£ inches ; draft, 22 feet 0^- inches ; displacement, 7,375 tons ; horse power, 
20,862; speed, 23 knots; armament, main battery, one 8-inch breech loading rifle, two 6-inch and eight 4-inch rapid fire guns; secondary battery, twelve 
6 -pounder and four 1-pounder rapid fire guns and four Gatlings ; crew, 38 officers and 656 men. In vessels of the type of the Minneapolis strength of 
armament and thickness of protective armor are sacrificed for speed. Their principal purpose is the 1 destruction of the merchant marine of an enemy. 



$ 




THE NEWARK. 

The Newark is a protected cruiser built at a cost of fl.248.000, and commissioned Februar/2, 1891. She differs from other vessels of the ^same dt-^tabff 
bark-rigged, which enables her with favorable winds to add the propulsion of 10,000 square feet of canvas to that of her twrn-screws, winch are dnven by engmes of 
8,869 hoarse' power, at the rate of 19 knots an hour. The Newark carries twelve 6-inch breech loading rifles four 6-pounder, four 3-pounder and two O-pc under rap d 
fire guns, four 37-millimeter Hotchkiss revolving cannon and four Gatlings. Her length is 310 feet ; breadth, 49 feet 2 mches ; draft, 19 feet , displacement, 4,098 
tons. Her crew comprises 34 officers and 350 men. 




MARINES FROM A UNITED STATES WARSHIP IN FORMATION TO QUELL A RIOT. 

The hollow square has done deadly work in many a war., The Old Guard of Napoleon was considered invincible when drawn up in this form. The hollow 
square is especially effective against a cavalry charge and in clearing streets of rioters. The navy is required to know the double duties of soldier and sailor. Often 
they are required to land and take possession of fortresses that have been bombarded by the vessels of war. This was notably the case in which the American flag 
was first planted on Cuban soil near Guantanamo by marines from the Oregon, on June 10, 1898. Captain Goodrell chose Crest Heights, where 850 marines were 
soon landed and the conquest of the hitherto impregnable fortress of Santiago de Cuba was assured as a mighty step toward the liberation of Cuba. The training of 
marines as soldiers is also necessary in order that they may be used effectively where they are needed in foreign countries when a show of force may be required to 
enforce respect for certain privileges. The construction of modern war vessels, their guns and steam engines, have created an entire revolution of duties within two 
or three generations, and no one can conjecture what additional changes are to take place. 




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THE KATAHDIN. 

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DIVINE SERVICE ON THE U. S. BATTLESHIP TEXAS. 

Attendance at divine service is not compulsory, and rarely more than half of the men avail themselves of the opportunity, but the service is always carried on 
with the solemnitv and impressiveness due to the occasion. There is no difference in the manner and method from that used in the church of the same denom nation 
as the minister. He receives the same pay as lieutenants, and he is required to attend the sick, write letters for them to their friends, keep a report of accidents 
sickness, and disabilities of the men, with a number of minor duties besides those of officiating clergyman. The men pay the most respectful attention and having 
robust voices some splendid singing may always be assured at every service. As seen in this photograph, the piano is ever present; and, if no visitor is at hand tuere 
is no trouble to find some one who can handle the keys of the instrument as nimbly and correctly as could be desired. While formerly, the crews of war sh .p .were 
noted for their profanity and general wickedness, a reform has taken place, and most of them are as orderly and well behaved as strict discipline and a respect tor the 
fitness of things can make them. Military and naval visitors from foreign governments to our armies and ships during the war with Spain, ,.t all times specially noted 
the admirable conduct and discipline of the soldiers and sapors. 




.'FIGHTING TOP 



AND 5IX=INCH GUN OF THE U. S. CRUISER NEW ORLEANS. 



..FIOHTING iui- »,-., =.- fom a,M. app»r,.o. TUeir ctaullr 

0,„«e^.ve.l».,^ 







THE BROOKLYN. 
Of 81 MtaJTS hS ™J !T T, 01 ^ CrUiSffl S,1 ' Wn bereWith re " reSentS ml «P enditMe °f *2,080.000. She was commissioned December 1, 1896. With a speed 

,f o„ :: ; ' ir;:: ; " nt em t 8 r*? s " ineh ;,,,d twelve 5 - ind ' breech loadins ^ ^ 6 - pounder and f ™ 1 -<— ""• i £T£ 

n#Ei « i^yrs :::::,::; ^itr;:r ^ and 51 inches ou the tnmt - The crew - si of 46 ^ - - ::: 




TERROR. 
Sh lkbspbam informs aa that there is nothing in a name, but naval commanders believe otherwise, if the names of war vessels the world over ... 
evidence The Terror is a twin-screw," double turreted monitor for coast defense, and it cost $3,178,046. Lengft, 2& feet, 6 incl draft, 

14 feet, 6 inches; displacement, 4,01 - speed, 12 knots. Main Lattery, four 10-inch breech loading rifles, otoun&d in pairs in two turrets. Secondary battery) 

eight rapid tiro and machine guns. She fe surrounded on the water line l.y armor 7 A inches thick; the turret armor is 114 "^hes thick. 




HIE UNITED STATES CRUISER, CHARLESTON.— The Charleston is a second rate cruiser and was built in San Francisco iu 1889. She is a type of the new war vessels built by the 
Government, and named after the leading cities of the country. The Charlestons length on the water line is 312 feet and she has a breadth of 40 feet. The extreme draft of the vessel is 
20 feet and 10 inches, and her displacement is 3,987 tons. The horse power of the Charleston developed on the official trial trips was 6,060, and the same test showed the speed of the vessel 
to be 18,205 knots per hour. This speed test shows the Charleston to be a fast vessel and well adapted for cruising purposes. She has two military masts, and is furnished with a main 
battery and secondary battery, her armament being of the latest and most approved pattern. The main battery consists of two 8 inch breech loading rifle guns, and 6 guns of a similar 
type. The secondary battery is composed of 14 guns, there being four 6-pounders, two 3-pounders, two 1-pouniers, two gatling guns, and four small revolving rifles. 










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FORECASTLE OF PROTECTED CRUISER BOSTON. 

With the advent of the electric light came the search-light as an instrument in naval warfare. Just beyond the big gun in this photograph may be seen the 
powerful electric search-light, now necessary to the equipment of every vessel. Great dynamos are constructed in a convenient place near the level of the water line 
of the vessel, and the benefits of electricity thus generated are utilized to the most advantage, both for convenience and defense. At the signal to watch for a torpedo 
boat, every man flies to his place assigned as a look-out, and the gunners lake their place at the two eight-inch guns, and the main battery of six six-inch guns, ready 
to sink the boat that may have the temerity to attack them under the cover of night. This vessel took a prominent part in the destruction of Admiral Montejo's fleet 
at Manilla, May 1. 1898, although it is one of the minor cruisers, having only 3,189 tons displacement and being only 270 feet in length, against the Baltimore's 
4,600 tons displacement and 327" feet in length. Also its speed is only 15.6 knots; against the Baltimore's 20.09. Spanish torpedo boats at Manilla and at Santiago 
de Cuba made the attempt to render service, but in each case were discovered and beaten back or sunk. The search-light has largely curtailed the theoretical value of 
the torpedo boat as a night-destroyer of fleets. 




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JACK TARS IN HAMMOCKS ON THE U. S. BATTLESHIP INDIANA. 

When the poet wrote the "Sailor Boy's Dream,"in which he said "His hammock swung loose at the sport of the wind," he referred to the sleeping places of 
the old sail boats, since the hammocks of the " sailor boys " in war vessels now "swing loose " in close iron <rooms and are attached to the heavy steel beams of thick 
iron-plated ceilings. But to those who are not afflicted with such aesthetic tastes as to receive pain from every infringement on their ideals of comfort and beauty, 
the battleship hammock is one of the most comfortable places in the vessel. The scene here given can not impress one as showing an ideal bed room, and the lack 
of upholstered furniture seems to indicate that comfort is not a matter of very considerable solicitation, but the sailors have no complaint to make and their rugged, 
healthful life doubtless contains as much enjoyment as is alotted to the average man. These hammocks not only serve as sleeping places but also as convenient 
retreats for rest. They are swung across ships to lessen the effect of a rolling sea; and when the men are off duty, no better lounging quarters can be found than the 
folds of the sailor's hammock. The landsman visiting these little rooms in a war vessel comes out with the feeling that he has escaped from a subterranean cell and 
breathes a sigh of relief, but the sailor enjoys it and is satisfied. 




APPRENTICE BOYS AT SCHOOL. 

A lot of roguish boys not particularly delighted with their work is here shown at their' desks in the school room of their ship. Just why teacher and pupils 
should wear their hats is not explained, unless it is to ward off the occasional drop of oil that might fall from the overflowing joint of connecting rods above. The 
tasks of these cadets are not so difficult as those in the town or village school. Their learning comes more from the process of doing than from that of study. But 
the}' have a disciplii.3 that is unknown to the pupils ashore. It is intended to train and develop them into the strongest factor of naval machinery and the effective- 
ness of l he American Navy is proof that the process is a success. 




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Docks on the River Pasig, looking from the Puente D'Esjana, Manila, toward the 

mouth of the river. 






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and the Rosario. 




2. A river scene in the suburbs of Manila on the River Pasig. 




WINFIELD S. SCHLEY. 

Commodore Wtnfield S. Schley, commander of the flying squadron, is a typical 
gentieman-soldier oi the sea. He is a fighter and a scholar. He came out of the 
naval academy in 1860. and went into the war in 1861. He was m the west gulf 
blockading squadron for a year, and took part in all the engagements that led up to 
the capture of Port Hudson, from March 16 to July 9, 1863 He is a tall officer with 
the grace and dignity natural to the high-toned Marylander. He is cultured and a 
linguist He hal h fine command of French and Italian and can talk to the Spaniard 
in Spanish as pure as that of any grandee. His courage is unquestioned. When he 
was in the bay of Valparaiso he defied the combined Jet of Great Britain ana Chile 
and kept his decks ready for action by day and night. He was satisfied that with 
his one ship he could have cleared the harbor in two hours, and there is no doubt 
that whether or not he was correct in that opinion, he and his men would have tried 
it Commodore Schley was born in 1839. but his life on the open sea has preservec 
him vigorous and hearty. Cool headed, alert, quick to decide, fearless in execution, 
he is an ideal commander of the cavalry of the sea. 








WILLIAM THOMPSON SAMPSON. 

Rear Admiral Sampson graduated at the Naval Academy of Annapolis in 1861. 
He was assigned to the frigate Potomac. Later he was returned to Annapolis as an 

In 1866 he was lieutenant commander of the flagship Colorado of the European 
station, and in 1872 with the Congress at the same station. He was frequently 
returned to Annaoolis during this time to act as a special instructor for short peri- 
ods His commission as a commander came to him in 1874, when he was placed in 
charge of the Alert Eight vears later he is found in the Asiatic squadron, and in 
1885 doing special service at the naval obse- vatory and a member of the international 
prime-meridian and time conference. With the opening of this decade he was on 
land again as superintendent of the academy from which he graduated, a delegate 
from the United States to the international maritime conferences, and commissioned 
captain. One year later he was made commander of the ironclad ban Irancisco. and 
in another year the first commander of the Iowa. Still another year, and he went 
Wher— this time to be chief of the bureau of naval ordnance. 

President McKinley called him to be president of the board of inquiry on the 
Maine disaster, and from that work he succeeded Admiral Sieatd in command of the 
North Atlantic squadron. 




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GEORQE DEWEY. 

George Dewey, commander of the Asiatic squadron that annihilated the Spanish 
fleet at Manila Bay, is a veteran among 1 the naval officers of the United States. He 
received his first experience under Admiral Farragut, and aboard the old steam 
sloop Mississippi, to which he was assigned for duty April 19, 1861, eight days before 
Port Sumter was fired upon. 

Commodore Dewey was born in 1837, and is a native of Vermont. He was 
appointed to the Naval Academy from that State in September, 1857. 

When Farragut's fleet forced an entrance to the Mississippi Lieutenant Dewey 
was in the thickest of the fray upon the old steam sloop. 

Commodore, then Lieutenant Dewey, got his first command in 1870, when he 
performed special service with the Narragansett. 

He was placed in command of the Pensacola of the European squadron in 1885, 
remaining as its commaader until 1888, when he became the chief of the Bureau of 
Equipment and Recruiting with the rank of Commodore. 

The duties and rank of Captain Dewey remained unchanged then until 1893, 
when he became a member of the Lighthouse board. He received his commission as 
Commodore Feb. 28, 1896, being about the same time made president of the Board of 
Inspection and Survey, which position he occupied until January, 1898, when he was 
placed in command of the Asiatic squadron, and May 1, 1898, annihilated the Spanish 
fleet at Manila, when be was promoted to the position of Rear Admiral. 




LEADER OF THE PHILIPPINE INSURGENTS. 

General Pruilio Aguinaldo is a native Malay of the Philippine islands 
and the commander-in-chief of the insurgent forces. After Commodore Dewey's 
victory, Aguinaldo took the entire province of Cavite, made 1,600 Spaniards his 
prisoners, and captured 2,000 magazine rifles and six field guns from the enemy. 
The portrait which is here presented of the brave rebel chief is an excellent 
likeness. The photograph was taken in Hong-Kong in June, 1898. Agmnaldo's 
brave fight against and notable victory over the Spaniards shows him to be 
possessed of much military genius. His name has been a talisman for the 
Philippine insurgents, and his recent successes will make him all. the more pop- 
ular, if such is possible. The Captain-General of the Philippines set a price of 
$25,000, as a reward to any one who would assassinate Aguinaldo. Before the 
capitulation of Manila, Aguinaldo demanded that this uncivilized method of 
warfare be abandoned and a strong appeal was made to his followers to observe 
the rules of civilization. 



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5. Scene near El Oaney. 6. An American Sailor, the man to do the saving. 



4. A reconcentraclo, the man to be saved. 






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PORT OF ILOILO, PHILIPPINES. 

The town of Iloilo nest in size to Manilla, is unfortified, and would be the next to fall after Manilla. One war ship, with a few troops, could do the work. 
There would be no opposition worthy of mention after the fall of these two places. It has a good harbor, and could be developed into a rich seaport for trade with the 
L d res and Caroline Islands. The archipelago of the East Indies could be made of incalculable value to civilization if their resources were brought out by European 
thrift and intelligence. At this writing it is not known what the final disposition of the Spanish possessions in the East Indies is to be. 



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PERRY S VICTORY AT THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE -PAINTING IN THE CAPITOL BUILDING AT WASHINGTON.-The .famous painting illustrates one of the most 
important naval engagements, between the British and the United States in the War of 1813. The painting shows the commander of the United States fleet, Perry, shifting his fla* from the 
flagship Lawrence, to the Niagara. The British had concentrated their longer range guns on the Lawrence and after a few hours, out of 101 men and officers, only eighteen were not disabled 
and all her guns were rendered ineffective. The Niagara lay half a mile to windward. Perry made the passage in an open boat, and under heavy fire from the enemy. After takin- com- 
mand of the N.agara the battle was soon won by the Americans. When Perry saw that victory was secure he wrote with a pencil on the back of an old letter, resting it on his navy cap 
he despatch to Gen. Harmon : "We have met the enemy and they are ours-two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop." The combat had lasted three hours with a loss of 130 on 
Soth sides. It took place near the western extremity of Lake Erie,, September 10, 1813. 




THE CAPITOL BUILDING AT WASHINGTON 

Is on an eminence called Capitol Hall in the eastern portion of the city. The corner stone was laid by Washington, September 18, 1779, and the first session of 
con-ess was held here in 1800. The south wing was finished in 1808, and the interior of both wings was burned by the British m 1814. The reconstruction of 
the Wings was commenced in 1818, and completed in 1827. The extension, which was completed in 1867 was commenced m 1851 when President Fillmore laid the 
corne stone and an address was delivered bv Daniel Webster. The old building, now the central part is 3o2 by 121 feet, with a portico 1 60 feet wide of 120 
corinthian columns on the east and a projection of S3 feet on the west. The extension consists of a north and south wing, each 142 by 238 feet The rotunda is a 
circular room rising ISO feet, the entire height of the interior of the dome. The senate chamber is in the north extension, and the hall of representatives in the south 
extension. The supreme court room is on the east side of the north wing of the central building. The house of congress has not been an object of greater public 
interest since the Civil war than when it was considering the liberation of Cuba. 




™„ WHITC ixninF WASHINGTON CITY -The White House is well known as the residence of the president of the United States. The executive rn.ns.on is located in the 
THE ^ HITE HOUSE-* ASH NGTON t V p *** ™ia avenue one and one-half miles from the capitol. It is two stories high, 170 feet long, ana 80 feet deep. There is a arge 
western port.on of Wssliington City fronting on Pennsylvania avenue ^ one ' jal f whkh u ,„ C0Dst ,. uctc d is freestone, painted 

portico on the north, supported by ^"-"J^^ ^ZZ^^Z^in^^ building was first occupied by President Adams, in 1800. It was burned by the 
white. Hence the reason for the name of VI bite House. The corner stone y, as in i e Fif tccnth and Seventeenth streets, and extend to the Potomac 

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famous for their beauty . At the White House are held all the presidential receptions and social functions. 





President McKinley, twenty-fifth in the line of chief executives 
of the United States, had the honor of signing the joint resolution of the Senate 
and House of Representatives, which is virtually the death warrant to Spanish 
sovereignty in the Western World. President McKinley was elected November 4, 
1896, at a time when the struggle for Cuban Independence was well under way. 
The condition of affairs which he has been destined to confront are graver than any 
of his predecessors have had to contend with since the time of Lincoln, and their 
ultimate outcome, involving as they do the destinies of a people battling for 
freedom, are likely to be fraught with the most important results to the patriots 
of Cuba and the people of the United States. 



General Fitzhugh Lee, an ex-Confederate officer and a former 
Governor of his native State, Virginia, who has proved himself to be bot.i 
a soldier and a statesman, has earned the tributes of the entire nation by his 
courage, judgment and firmness in protecting American interests in Havana during 
the dark days of Weyler's despotic sway and the trying ordeal attendant upon 
the destruction of the Maine. In his testimony before the Senate Committee, 
General Lee clearly fixed the responsibility for the Maine disaster upon Spanish 
officials acting in, sympathy with General Weyler, by whose orders the mine was 
laid which was subsequently used in blowing up the Maine. 




THE STATE, WAR AND NAVY BUILDINGS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Tin ; m n,c cure, which is for the accommodation of the three departments of the government named, is immediately west of theWhite House. 



The structure is 
built of -ranite and is of the Roman- Doric style of architecture. The main building is 471 feet long and 253 feet wide, and including wings and steps it is 567 by 
V2 fcet"and 128 feet in hcio-ht The work on this great building was begun in 1871, and the southern portion was occupied by the State Department >n 18<5, the 

War and the Navy Departments moving into their respective portions of the building later. This building is six stories in height, •■•■' > ^ 

imposing structures of the National Capitol. It is a hive of industry and is filled with a myriad of clerks engaged 

departments of the government. During w 

to officers and the people on all subjects involved. 



and is one of the beautiful and 

carrying on the business of these three great 

Hun,,,. „ar the force is nearly doubled, not only to fill the requirements of the emergency of war, but to prepare information needed 



in 




i 



THE RED CROSS AMBULANCE WAQON. 

The humanitarian side of war, under international agreement is more recent than most suppose. Henri Dunant, a young Swiss, wh had served in the Italian 
wars was at the bloody battle of Solferino, He wrote a small book on the suffering and'loss of life from the unattended wounded, which he called "the Souvenir de 
Solferino." He advocated the idea that all warring nations should regard the sick and wounded as neutrals. The Swiss Federal Council called an international con- 
vention to consider the matter. The first conference was held in Geneva in October, 1863. Sixteen governments were represented. The matter was fully discussed 
and another conference was called to meet August 8, 1864. The sixteen again met and fourteen signed the articles of agreement which declared for "the ameliora- 
tion of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field." Since then forty nations have signed the agreement. The sign used to denote the non-combatant neu 
trals engaged in caring for the sick and wounded, is a crimson cross in a white square. The sign is in compliment to the Swiss republic, as it is their national em- 
blem. During the United States civil war, the Sanitary and Christian Commissions did similar work in the hospitals and on the field. The "American Amendment" 
was added by Clara Barton when she organized the Red Cross Society of America. ' It operates in famine, flood, fire, and pestilence as well as in war Henri 
Dunant the originator of the Red Cross organization is given a pension by both the Russian and Swiss governments. 




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ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA. 

This old city, lying on the east coast of Florida, occupies a peninsula formed by the Matansas river on the east and the St. Sebastian on the south and west 
St. Augustine is the oldest city in the United States, a fort having been built here by the Spanish under Menendez in 1556. The streets of St. Augustine are generally 
narrow, and in the center is a public square called the Plaza de la Oonstitucion, on which are situated the custom house and the pos'toffice. The postoffice is a- 
remarkably handsome structure, and was formerly occupied as a residence by the Spanish governor. The old city of St. Augustine was built from coquina rock, a 
conglomerate of small sea shells quarried on Anastasia island and dried in the sun. The old Spanish wall, which extended across the peninsula from shore to shore, 
and protected the city on the north, is now in ruins. One of the objects of interest in St. Augustine is the old fortress of San Marco, now Fort Marion. It is built 
from coquina stone, and has room for a garrison of 1,000 men. It was completed in 1776, having been built entirely by Indian slaves, and more than a century being 
occupied in its construction. In this old Spanish city and in Tampa were most of the refugees from Spanish oppression in Cuba, and here many of the filibustering 
expeditions were planned and sent out to aid the insurgents. 




' . • • • „„„„ „f tlip pnrlv davs of slavery in the South. Within this inclosure took 

OLD SLAVE MARKET IN ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA.-This photograph shows an »«»J — lic^as first established ^ the Spaniard, Menendez, in 1565. The 
place the regular slave sales in the city of St. Augustine. There are many points of inter est a rounc bt A u , ^ ^^ . g ^^ ^ ^ .^^ by thousands of 

point shown in the photograph is one of great interest to visitors, and this i relic of the ^W l ^» of America the Spaniards began to enslave the natives, and Columbus 
visitors. If this old building could speak, it could doubtless tell many pathetic sto " S n f °°" b Un to 1 ad up ?o a heavy slave trade in the American colonies. The opposition to slav- 
himself was engaged in the Portuguese slave trade. The demand of the American ™^™^££}™ gUeties were formed to promote the gradual abolition of slavery, and the 
ery in the United States was apparent from the beginning, and many eminent men opposed it at its ^eption 
Station was kept up until the result was the war of the Rebellion, which forever settled this questton m the United States. 




THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, "WASHINGTON, D. C— This scientific establishment was organized by an act <r Congress in 1846, which carried into effect certain bequests of 
James Smithson, an English physicist. Smithson died in Genoa, Italy, in 1829, and at his death he bequeathed to his nephew 120,000 pounds, which, in the event of the death of the 
Jatter without heirs, was to revert to the Government of the United States to found at Washington an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge. In 1835 this nephew 
died without heirs, and in 1838 the proceeds of the estate, amounting to over half a million dollars, were deposited in the United States mint. A spacious building was erected containing 
a library, museum, gallery of art, and lecture rooms. The cost of these improvements was about half a million of dollars. An immense amount of valuable scientific work is carried 
forward by this institution. The library is the largest in the United States, and is being added to each year. The museum, which has been enriched by the fruits of governmental expe- 
ditions and the contributions of individual explorers, has attained a magnitude and completeness seldom surpassed in its collections and illustrations of natural science. 

# 




„,,.,, t „„,.o =0 „+ a fh P arpnt National Museum at Washington, -which, with its rich collection, is one of the prominent and 

NATIONAL MUSEUM, WASHINGTON, D. C.-Tlns photograph ^^^^^J^^ and , by the Term; of the' congressional bill authorizing it, it was to be called the 
interesting places of the national capito. The bmlding was erecte ^ g Inatitutioll) and wa3 constructed after plans suggested-by Professor Baird, who had, before submitting 
" National Museum." The building i. located directly ea t of he bm.t ^ ^ t ne world. It is a spacious and roomy building, containing seventeen large exhibition halls, and 

them, made a most careful examination of the best swucturc * . ' s After the growth of the collection in the Smithsonian Institution had reached such proportions that 

in addition to these there are 180 r °° ms " ™ '™^ w used as the general repository of all geological and industrial collections of the government. It is rapidly becoming one of 
^J^J^iS5i^t£ST SI collections fre interesting and instructive, and are being added to rapidly. 




Vrnmef The photograph above shows a portion of the residence section of Washington. The streets and ^avenue * and ; n the vicinity of the capitol espec.ally a number of 

e Tt'rac^ve features of the city. There are a number of squares beautif uHy laid out, containing founta - trees and * ub J ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ „ ^ 

n v .nm nt tatnes have been erected. In Washington there are twenty-one avenues nanied after the States ofjhe U ^ ^^ WasMn „ ton in 1791 , and commissioners 

SSSjl gS^2; 180, to 1871, when a territorial government was organized for the entire district. 



■ 




SUPREME COURT ROOM, WASHINGTON, D. C— The above photograph represents the interior of the United States supreme court room, where meets the highest judicial tribunal of 
the country. This room is the one formerly used as the hall of representatives. It is located in the south wing of the central building of the Capitol building, between the rotunda and 
the present hall of the House of Representatives. The supreme court room is the most stately and beautiful apartment in the Capitol building. The room is semi-circular in shape. It is 
ninety-six feet long and fifty-seven feet in height. It is used as a receptacle for the historical statues which Congress in 1864 invited the States to contribute. Each State was asked to 
contribute two of these statues. In addition to these the room contains other statuary and paintings. The supreme court consists of one chief justice and ei»ht associate justices all 
appointed by the president for life. The supreme court has jurisdiction in all cases arising under the constitution, laws and treaties of the United States; causes affecting consuls of ambas- 
sadors ana jurisdiction ; controversies to which the United States is a party. 




VIEW OF BUSINESS SECTION, WASHINGTON, D. C.-This in.e^ p oto,™ = — - " *£%£££> built and an aristocratic city, having 

wilafon now contains about 200,000 inhabitants, and is a city fraught w.th histonc mte rest £ ™^«" g * f was , ed but the territory forme rly w.th.n the cor- 

;:'S: sW residents. Washington was incorporated as a city by an act of Cocgress May 180^ n 18, ^ & ^ ^ ^ greatest , eng(h f the t 

of those designated as avenues, are laid out at right angles. 




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vnu ,n r.w-MN \M\ \\i M i WABHIXGTI „„ ihowt • eectton ..f ■ Hieetointl Pew roneii 

lr „ l.™d I ««• rirer. on the eo»U,., ■ > 1~ ■> -enuc U in,.,- I «M nod the WW* I rticb hi 

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,. D v munificent building*. It if band.on.elj p»red. mod it. eitreme width idd- 



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SOLDIERS' HOME WASHINGTON, D. C.-The national Soldiers' Home was built for the purpose of furnishing a home for disabled soldiers of the Regular Army The bi 
IwcShown in The photograph above, is situated about three miles north of the Capitol building and is beyond the city limits of Washington. This institution was established , 
WHICH is snown m tut. i)uuiu n V u o Uu . s , . .,„ ,, , ... ,, ... ,, . ,..:„j ™ ,i,„ rt.„ „t ¥»»i™ aannnftn n uro mnnev . Of this amount 



The building 

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amount there 



, ™,di,t, if Pomnrise ,00 acres General Winfield Scott, during the war with Mexico, levied on the City ol Mexico *3UU,uuu pmage money . Of this 
The grounds surround ,«co»pn« ^00 acre* general JV ? establishment of the Soldiers' Home. This sum was added to by fines, stoppages against soldiers 

"axo" we e st Lb,' 2 th un has reached 2*1 of $800,000, and the Government holds over $1,000,000, derived from forfeitures of deserters and from unclaimed 
money due so'dtr, The main building'is of white marble and has a frontage of 200 feet. Abronze statue of General Scott, by Launt Thompson, erected in 1874, is located on the brow 
of the hill, about a"quarer of a mile from the main building. The summer cottage of the President is located nearthe main building. 




mm n OF THE BVTTLE OF GETTYSBURG.-This photograph shows one of the historic spots of America, the field where the bloody battle of Gettysburg took place. On thl B 

1 T ,K- 1 ft and and 3rd 1SG3 the Union Army of the Potomac under General Meade and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia under General Lee fought the decisive bat 

UrSch marked the epoch of the decline of the confederacy. This ground is annually visited by thousands of American people. The quiet valley and the green hills beyond, now sleep- 

!1 under the warm southern sun, show but little signs of the fierce conflict, with its bloody July days thirty-one years ago. Here and there are reared little white monuments to 

8 i i h o s occuid S parte of the two armies on these davs. The Union loss at Gettysburg was 23,lfi0, of whom 2,8.4 were killed, 13,713 wounded, and 0,043 missing. The 

OonfXatl t :Cne "rbeen offiotllv stated, but by the best estimates it was about 36,000, of whom about ..000 were killed, 23,000 wounded and 8,000 unw led prisoners. The 

white monument in the foreground was erected to show the position held by Pickett's Virginia veterans. 




UNITED STATES MINT AT PHILADELPHIA.— The United States Mint at Philadelphia was established by an act of Congress in 1792. The first machinery, as well as the first metal 
used was imported Since that time a number of branch mints and assay offices have been established in various parts of the United States, but the principal mint is still retained at 
Philadelphia and its general appearance is well shown in the photograph above. When gold or silver is received into the mint to be coined, each deposit is kept separate during the 
process of meltino- and assaying, until the precise value is determined. The charge for refining and separating silver from gold varies from 1 cent to 6 cents an ounce. When the metal 
is alloyed ready for coining the ingots are rolled into thin strips by powerful, but accurately constructed rollers, and from these strips the coins are made. The entire process is an intri- 
cate and costly one. and re°q'uires a large amount of carefully adjusted machinery. The greatest care is exercised in every department. "' ' ' 
constructed after the plan of the French lever press, invented by Thonellier. 



The coining press which is used in the U. S. Mint is 






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FANEUIL HALL BOSTOK -Faneuil Hall is one of the land marks of Boston and all New England. Around this famous old building cluster memories of the struggles and triumphs 
of the earlier colonial days The building, as originally completed in 1742, comprised a market house on the ground floor, and a town hall and other rooms, which was in addition to 
the ordinal plan above In 1805 the- building was enlarged by the addition of another story, and was also increased in width. It has been aptly named the "cradle of liberty," because 
within its historic walls durin- the Revolutionary period were held many meetings of the colonial patriots, and at every period during the history of Boston it has been the head-quarters 
of every movement of popular reform in which the people of that section became interested. Within its walls have been discussed every great question that has affected the interests of 
Boston New England and the United States. Within its walls have been heard the voices of Adams, Hancock and Warren, the great; political leaders who flung defiance at the British; 
the words of Mar°quis La Fayette, Daniel Webster, Charles Sumner, and others of the greatest and most noted men that have been known in the history of America. 




INTERIOR OF FANEUIL HALL, BOSTON. — The above photograph shows a portion of the interior view of this famous hall, the name of which is so linked with the early history of 
our colonies. It was named after Peter Faneuil, a Boston merchant, who died in that city in 1743. After the project of erecting a public house in B iston had been discussed for som^ 
years, Mr. Faneuil offered, at a public meeting, to build a suitable edifice at his own cost as a gift to the town ; but, so strcng was the opposition to market houses that, although the 
meetinf passed a vote of thanks to the generous donor unanimously, his offer was finally accepted by a bare majority of seven votes. The erection of the famous building was commenced 
in Dock Square in September, 1740, and was finally completed in 1742. The historic structure was completely destroyed by fire in 1761, but two years later it was rebuilt by the city of. 
Boston The interior of Faneuil Hall is adorned with portraits of eminent Americans, conspicuous among which is an original painting of Washington by Stewart. Among other 
paintin-s are a full length portrait of Peter Faneuil, Healy's picture of Webster's Reply to Haine, and portraits of Samuel Adams, John Quincy Adams, and Abraham Lincoln. 




CONCORD MONUMENT AND BATTLE GROUND.— The photograph represents a scene in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, near the town of Concord, where the brave "minutemen " 
so early took up arms against their English oppressors. The monument is erected in memory of the patriots who fell in the battle fought at that place on April 18, 1775, on which occasion 
a detachment of eight hundred British troops marched from Boston upon Concord. The British took possession of a large part of the town, and began destroying arms and provisions. 
The British were driven back to Lexington by the Provincials, who kept up an incessant and deadly fire upon the fleeing soldiery. As early as 1767 the people of Concord made them- 
selves conspicuous for their opposition to the measures of the British government, and, so far as the deliberate purpose of the Americans was concerned, the Revolution was begun by the 
determination of the militia officers to march upon North Bridge at Concord, and the first order to fire upon royal troops came from Major Buttrick on this historic spot. In 1835 the 
wranite obelisk shown in the photograph was erecttd. It is twenty-eight feet in height, and was raised on the spot where the first British soldiers fell. 




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BROOKLYN BRIDGE, NEW YORK. 

In 1829 a corporation was first organized to build a bridge from Brooklyn Heights to Maiden Lane, to cost $600,000. The project was revived from time 
to time but finally in 1869 the work of actual construction was begun, and the bridge was finally completed, and opened to general traffic in May, 1884. This bridge 
is regarded as one of the great achievements of modern engineering. The central span across the river is 1,595 feet long and 135 feet above high water mark. The 
*our"cables upon which the bridge is suspended are bound to anchor chains, and then pass through twenty-five feet of solid masonry, and then come out through 
the walls of the anchor on water side eighty feet above high-water mark. They are then carried over the top of the towers, and in the middle of the river span they 
drop to the level of the road-way. The total length of the bridge is 1\ miles, and is eighty-five feet wide. Along the Bast River are miles of docks at which transports 
are loaded for coast commerce. Near this bridge are the docks of the transport lines to Cuba and other West Indian ports. 




EAST RIVER DOCKS, NEW YORK CITY. 

Tins view is taken on the East river, which is a deep and swift tidal stream about twenty miles in length, connecting New York harbor at the Battery with Lon« 
Island Sound at Willet's Point. East river is an avenue of vast commerce, and its ferry boats and great steam boats plying to and fro present a busy and animated 
scene. The piers and wharves of the East river docks are for the greater part unsightly and irregular. They are built of wood upon piles. A bill was passed by the 
New York legislature in 1892, involving the construction of large two story pavilions on the pier ends, the design being to devote the lower stories to commercial pur- 
poses, and to form upon the upper floors fresh air gardens, with music, flowers and sea views, but little progress has been made. It is at these docks where supplies 
were loaded on board transports used for the Spanish-American war. 







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GROUP OF OSAGE INDIANS.-This interesting portrait shows a number of the prominent members of the Osage Indian tribe, which » now located on its ^oam Indian Territory. 
tw L nf the Dakota family and were originally allies of the Illinois. They are a warlike tribe, and at the beginmngof this century carried on a deadly strife with the Sacs and Foxes, 
They are of the Dakota fa m ay,^ years spent their time in p i uudering , with no 

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nd Z Terr itorf This reservation was between Kansasand the Creek country, and they were placed here under the Society of Fnend.. A *» » established on the reservation, 
and pupfls were maintained at the Osage mission school in Kansas. The tribe received interest on $300,000, and the interest on $110,000 was applied to education. Some 
educational works have been issued in their native language. 




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GOVERNMENT ARSENAL BUILDING, ROCK ISLAND, ILL.-The accompanying illustration shows the first permanent bmldmg that was constructed by the government at the 
Safn™! arsenal near Rock Island. Rock Island is situated just cast of the city of the same name. This island U the property of the United States .and as about three miles in 
fen" 1 cover L. an area of 960 acres. It is covered with fine forest trees, and has graded avenues and handsome drives Dunng and previous to the Black Hawk War at was the site 
of Fort Irm ro°n. a series of block houses, and during the War of the Rebellion an extensive prison for the detention of confederate prisoners was constructed upon Rock Island. The 
a slnal and armor°y located at this place is designed as the Central United States Armory. It consists of a number of immense stone workshops with a store house in the rear of each in 
additl to office Z quarters, magazine, and offices. Work was commenced on the buildings in 1873, the building shown above being the first permanent structure that was completed. 
The government has expended large sums of money in the construction of the buildings, and in beautifying the island with drives and roadways. 




BATTERY AT FORT OMAHA, NEBRASKA. — Above is shown the battery of the United States military station, near Omaha. The field pieces, which constitute the battery of the West- 
ern military posts, generally consist of light artillery that can be depended upon in case of Indian trouble. Fort Omaha is situated about four miles northwest of the prosperous Nebraskan 
metropolis from which the fort derives its name. This fort is the headquarters of the Department of the Platte, and a regiment of troops is stationed here. The place is rather a pictur- 
esque one with officers' and soldiers' quarters constructed of brick, and with a pleasant and well shaded lawn. The military system of the United States being based largely upon volun- 
tary armies, the standing army, or regular army, in times of peace consists of practically only a few thousand men, who are mainly used for garrisoning a small number of permanent forti- 
fications and military stations, and for preserving order among the Indian tribes of the West. Life at one of these military stations in the West is, in times of peace, one of extremely dull 
routine, except when an occasional Indian outbreak gives the garrison a season of active life. 




PRIMITIVE SCENE IN U. S. 

The engraving shows one of the huge structures occupied by the Pueblo Indians at Laguna, in what was once Spanish territory. It affords a parallel study to 
the primitive scenes of Cuba and the Philippines. These buildings are usually of sun-dried brick, or adobe. They are generally very large, eontain^^veral storied 
In some of the Pueblos the whole community, amounting to from 300 to 700 souls, are domiciled in one of these great buildings. More than twenty of these many 
stoned, manjvchambered communal homes are scattered over the territory of New Mexico, three of the most important of which are adjacent to Isleta Lacuna 
and Acoma. Isleta and Laguna are ten miles and sixty six miles, respectively, beyond Albuquerque, and Acoma is reached from either Laguna or Cubero by a drive 
of a dozen miles. The aboriginal inhabitants of the Pueblos, an intelligent, complex, industrious and independent race, are anomalous among North Imericln 
natives. They are housed to-day m the self-same structures in which their forefathers were discovered, and in three and a half centuries of cpntact with Eurooeans 
then- manner of life has not materially changed. Pueblo architecture does not possess the elaborate ornamentation found in the Aztec ruins These houses 
are sometimes seven stories and contain over a thousand rooms. nouses 




m mTT ™ TTJ TH1? TiNITED STATES AT SANTA FE, N. M. -While the city of St. Augustine, Florida, is generally credited as the oldest city in the United States, the City 
° L a DE t ST „ H «m was an Indian village many years before the settlement of St. Augustine. It is not known when Santa Fe was first settled by the Spaniards, but it has been the capital of New 
of Santa Fe, N M., wasar ^> a = ' * ^ g iards (about 1542) the town was a popu i ous Mian pueblo, or village. Theoldhouse shown in the photograph is one of the remains 

Mex.co since the yea, £640, ana w j^ ^ ^ . ^ ^.^ ^ ^ fc ^ hag ^ standing f Qr pr&bab]y mQre thanfivehundred year9> and was at leMt erected by the Indians 

u^Tfi ^timentwaseffec'ted at S°t. Augustine. Its walls of rude masonry are still in a fair state of preservation, notwithstanding its great age, audit is one of the interesting rehcs of 
before the first " ttlOTe "' ™^ ec ,* ' d in ° 1G80 , and the principal buildings were burned by the Indians, who drove the whites from the country. It was recaptured by the Spamsh 
this historic section, oanta re »»» <-»i n,,,v 
forces in 1649, when the inhabitants returned. 




THE UNITED STATES BRANCH MINT AT SAN FRANCISCO.— Under the coinage act of IS73 mints w°-" in operation at Philadelpnia, San Francisco, Denver, and Carson City. 
The Phila elphia mint was established in 1792. The machinery, and the first metal used being imported. The first money coined by authority of the United States was copper cents in 
1793. Silver dollars were first coined in 1794, and gold eagles in 1795. The bureau of the mint of the United States is in charge of the director of the mint, who is under the general 
direction of the Secretary of the Treasury. The officers of each mint are a superintendent, an assayer, a melter, and a refiner, and for the mint at Philadelphia an engraver, this work being 
done at that place for the other branch mints. The mint at San Francisco was established in 1854, and is a handsome and well-built structure. The production of the original dies at 
Philadelphia, cut by the engravers hand is a work of great labor, and it would be impossible in this manner to supply the dies necessary for the coinage of the country. The original 
dies, carefully finished and hardened are used to strike conies in softened steel 




SAN FRANCISCO AND THE GOLDEN OATE. 

San Francisco occupies the extremity of a peninsula, and has an area of twelve square miles. It is bounded on one side by the bay of San Francisco, and on 
Iteo^JfS^^rfiteVuAtoO.XKi. The Golden Gate, which is shown in this engraving, is a narrow passage way on the outer coast range through 
which the vessels pass into the harbor of San Francisco. The entrance to Golden Gate does not exceed a mile in width at one point The o, y stands on the east 
TlSoe and at the base of hi*h Id" In 1847 in front of the city was a cove, extending half a mile into the land and a mile wide, between Clark's Point and Rmcon 
Point Thts cove has been filled in, and where large ships could anchor in 1849 are now paved streets. The greatest enthusiasm that ever aroused the peop to of this 
cit^was shown on the daj when the first vessel crowded with soldiers left the bay for the far away Philippines. "Going to help Dewey was the phrase that sent 
.a thrill to the hearts of every one who witnessed that historic sight. 




JUNEAU AND DOUGLASS ISLAND, ALASKA.— Juneau is a small village which owes its existence largely to the mines on Douglass Island. On the east shore of Douglass Island, oppo- 
site the village of Juneau may be seen a collection of Indian huts and a number of Indian canoes drawn up on the beach. Here a big flume which is used in mining operations crosses the 
deep gorge and extends down to the water. Across the narrow channel is located the Treadwell mine on Douglass Island. Here one of the largest quartz ledges known in the world 
over 490 feet wide, crops' out on the surface and is crossed by three walls. An island gold field is a rarity in mining annals but all Douglass Island is said to be seamed with quartz lodes, 
and it is ridged with high mountains from end to end of its twenty mile boundaries. It was 87 years after Vancouvers survey before the prospectors discovered gold, but the miners have re- 
tained the old nomenclature and the island is still Douglass Island as Vancouver named it in honor of his friend the Bishop of Salisbury. Juneau is yet only a straggling village although 
it was the first settlement in this section. It was named after one of the early miners. 




OLD CASTLE SITKA, ALASKA. — The building shown in this engraving, which is called a castle, was in reality originally a sort of a fortress. The town of Sitka was founded by 
Burauoff the first Russian Governor of Russian America, a few years after his original settlement at Starri. There still remain many traces of the Russian occupancy of Sitka, principal 
anion"- which is the old Baranoff castle above. The structure is a plain block edifice, which stands on Katalin's Rock, contiguous to the old Greek church. This building is the third 
structure which was erected on this site by the Russians, the first one having been destroyed by fire and the next by an earthquake. There were a number of other structures built during 
the time of the Russian occupancy of Sitka. Since the time of Baranoff, the castle has been remodeled, but has now passed on to partial decay, ashavethe remainder of the old yellow 
buildings of the Russians. Sitka, during the, time of the Russian occupancy, was a place of considerable luxury, but the relics of the extravagance of the early governors have prac- 
tically all passed away now. The club house is a ruin, and the race course has been entirely obliterated. 




VILLAGE OF ST. PAUL, ST. PAUL ISLAND, ALASKA.— The little island of St. Paul, in Buhring Sea, is the most important sealing point in that territory, and at St. Paul island, 
Walros island and Pribilof island, a littte group of islands four hundred miles from the nearest Alaskan c, ast, practically all of the seal catch of the world is made every year. St. Paul 
island is 1,400 miles northwest from Sitka, and 2,250 miles northwest from San Francisco. St. Paul island is a dreary and desolate spot, where only comparatively few people live every 
year, and the little village of St. Paul, shown in our engraving, contains all tne inhabitants of the island. It is a curious far out of the way place, and is visited only by the sealin" boats 
and by the United States revenue cutters, which make one or two trips there annually to inspect the seal fisheries and to look after other business in connection with sealing in the Behring 
Sea. St. Paul is the largest of the seal islands and has an area of thirty-three square miles, with a shore line or forty-two miles, of which sixteen and one-half miles are •' hauled over " by 
fur seals. The inhabitants are Aleuts who dwell in the comfortable houses shown in the photograph and are employed in sealing. 




HOUSE BUILDING IN MANILA. 
The accompanying photograph shows a native house in the Luzon in progress of construction for a family of considerable means. The ordinary building 

methods in the Philippines are very primitive, the majority of the houses of the natives being constructed of poles, thatched will, leaves and 1". together with 

vines Nails in the construction of the majority of the houses are an unknown quality. In Manila, the capital of Luzon, there are a lew magmfieenl -lone buud- 
inas with much architectural pretension, but the primitive house shown in the engraving, is a fair sample of the majority of the besl native residences of the island 
Faster week there are always tires- and it is said that thousands of houses are set on fire every year to keep up the price of thatching material. A lire always burns 
everything up to vacant lot- or to palm groves. There is a so-called fire department but the man having the key to the engine house is usually away; and, even when 
the key is~at hand, the oxen that pull the antiquated American fire engine are rarely ready. 




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ZACETECAS, MEXICO.— Zacetecas is a small mining town. The surrounding hills are supposed t< ue full of silver. It is said that mining was begun herein 1516 and it is estimated 
that a product of fully eight hundred million dollars has been taken out already. In 1880 there were about fifteen thousand miners at work in and about these hills. The town lies eight 
thousand feet above the sea. The houses of Zacatecas lie like grain in the hopper of a mill. With hills on every side, the low, flat-roofed, square buildings rise in terraces up the steep 
declivities, having the appearance of blocks fastened to an inclined plane. There seems to be no room for growth, unless it be up the mountains, or down ihe one valley toward the plain 
of Guadalupe. The visitor to Zacatecas is impressed with the resemblance to the cities of Palestine. The flat-roof style of house is of Moorish origin and came to Mexico from Spain, where 
the Moors held dominion for eight hundred years. Back of the town is a curious shaped mountain that looks very much like a buffalo. That is the name of it, the '• Bufa," the Spanish 
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TYPE OF LATIN-AMERICAN CITIES. 

See one Spanish city and you have seen them all, is the comment on the sameness of architecture prevailing wherever Spanish builders have constructed a 
house, a cathedral, or a city. The capital of Mexico is the representative city of the Spanish -American people. It was founded by the Aztecs in about the year 1312. 
The tribe had wandered for more than seven hundred years in search of the phrophetic sign by which they were to know where to make their final home. This sign 
was discovered on an island in Lake Texococo in the valley of Anahuac. In 1519 Hernan Cortez, the daring conqueror of Mexico, found a city of 300,000 people; as 
Cortez and his followers were considered by the natives to be descendants of the sun, who, according to a current prophecy, were to come from the east and subvert 
the Aztec empire, his work of conquest was easy. History bears no greater record of wanton destruction than the story of the subjugation of Mexico, the capital of 
the Montezumas, by the Spanish conqueror. The history of the city is substantially the history of the country. For more than five and a half centuries it has been a 
capital where successively cacique, conqueror, viceroy, emperor, dictator or president has made and executed the laws of the land The city is rich in museums, 
parks, libraries and magnificent churches. Population about 500. 000. 




The State is about half the size of Massa- 



The City of Queretaro is located in one of the smaller divisions of the Republic bearing the same name. 

events of Mexico as those of Massachusetts are with those of the United States. In Aztec tradition the people of th.s region were 

! said to have been founded by the Otomites in 1400. The town is noted for the number and richness of its 

,1 .,,...,,. a 1810 attempted a strike for freedom and the town had to suffer for his disloyalty. In 1867 Maximilian and his 

'all aboard" and the man knows now or never-you can get one hundred opals forfive dollars oragain one opal forfive hundred dollars in Queretaro. 



CITY OF QUERETARO, MEXICO. 

chusetts and about as prominently connected with the great 

spoken of as noted for their valor and for their fidelity to their vows. The cit; 



is called the opal station. 

lender is when the conductor calls, 




winrfflWUl YUCATAN -This interesting city, which is the chief port of Yucatan, a Mexican province on the Yucatan peninsula, is situated on the Gulf of Mexico on the norm 
I SXeZufa K ialecuutlj locfted on an extremely long, narrow, sandy peninsula. It stands half way on the northern coast line of the pemnsu a, and leaves a narrow 

the United States, amounts to several million dollars annually. 




„ ™t,™ 4 t A T OTTY OF MEXICO -This great Cathedral is in the form of a Latin cross, and over the central arches rises a magnificent dome, decorated by the most celebrated artists. 
CATHEDRAL A 1 CI ■ ^ ^ ^^ ^ seventy . seven feetj height] one hundred and seV enty-ni U e feet. There are hve naves 

, t r aTour teen " 1 s The missive railing about the entrance to the choir is a curiosity in metal as well as art. It is made of .composition of gold, sdver and copper and 
s,x altars, an d fourteen ^cha » six ^ ^ ^ made Qf ^ ^ ^.^ ^.^ which serve a8 1]ght bearers The lpl 3 and the 

came from Ch.na Along Jep^e ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Qf thege fa ^ ^ Qf ^.^ Qf ^ sjx ^ ^ most beautifu , fa the altar of the 

huge holy- water basu a are . ' aQd the four ; mda , Aldama| AUende and Jimenez who were executed in Chihuahua. The Cathedral stands on 

T'-t o?t Azt c temp e which was destroyed bv Cortcz. It was begun in 1573 and finished in 1667. The towers were finished in 1791, at a cost of $200,000. 




CHURCH DE LA CRUZ, 

Miracle and religious tradition are the chief wonderment of the ignorant devotees of Spanish- American people. Every church house is founded upon a miracle. 
The typical scene here shown is a good example. It is said that a native chief by name Fernando de Tapia, had a vocation to go and convert the people of 
Queretaro to Christianity. Coming to the city he proposed to the people that they should select champions to meet an equal number to be chosen by himself, and 
promise to abide by the results of the fight between the champions. This was the agreement. The fight raged for hours and hours, the champions being 
cheered by every conceivable demonstration that could be made. Suddenly in the sky above appeared visible to every eye the form of the blessed Santiago St. Iago- 
St. James and near him a red cross. This vision ended the battle, and the people of Queretaro yielded and begged the services of the priests. They erected a stone 
cross on the spot where the fight occurred and in due time the church of the Santa Cruz arose in its place. 



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7 



A TROPICAL CYPRESS BRAKE. 

The subject of this photograph is a beautiful southern scene, where the cypress tree, a variety of the pine, nourishes in the low wet lands of Cuba, Mexico and 
the Southern States. The foliage of the cypress is a delicate light green, which falls in autumn, after turning to a bright, tawny color. The trunk of the cypress is 
very thick, often from twenty-five to forty feet in circumference at the base, and attaining sometimes to a height of 120 feet. The branches are slender and elegantly 
pinnate. The roots of the large trees, especially, in situations exposed to inundation, have strange looking, conical perturbances called cypress knees, which rise 
above the soil to a height of two feet, and are sometimes four or five feet thick. The wood of the cypress is very highly esteemed for timber, and as it is 
absolutely imperishable under water, it is largely used for foundations of buildings, and for piling in wet localities. In the swamps of the South immense 
numbers of fallen cypress trunks are found at considerable depth, and in a perfectly sound condition, notwithstanding the great length of time that they must have 
been submerged. 




CYPRESS SWAMP. 

Cypress grows in most of the southern countries on river bottoms and in submerged swamps. The trees are girdled a year or two before they are felled, so 
that the wood may season, and consequently become so light that it will float. When cut the trees are floated out, full lengths, through passages which have been 
made bv clearing away bushes and other obstructions. The butts of the trees are hollow, and, as illustrated, several feet of this butt are left in the stump. The men 
who work in the°cvpress swamps become very expert, and in narrow canoes, which would dump the novice into the water on the slightest move, can stand and swing 
an ax all day. To wade in the mud of the swamps up to the waist, in an atmosphere loaded with miasma, and with a strong suspicion that ones nearest neighbors 
might be reptiles, would not be a pleasant occupation for those unused to it, but the swamper when obliged to do it, 
objection. Cypress is rapidly gaining favor in the northern markets as a finishing lumber. When a. ,i< ■ 
native wood. 



takes it as a matter of course, and raises no 
When subjected to dampness its durability exceeds that of any other 



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IN THE COTTON FIELDS. 



TYPICAL SCENE 

This typical southern scene represents a plantation common to the southern states, Cuba and Mexico, during the cotton picking season Lines ° £ f^ n 
l^yrtT^lZ JL wide-mouthed sacks suspended from tiieir shoulders „■ waists, pass between^ -s^plauts, aether the^eecy cotton _ 

feet. The flowers are bright yellow, each petal 

TheTower is succeeded by a fruit which gradually becomes dry, and then bursts into three or four valves when the 

The picking is generally done by hand, and should be commenced in July or August, as soon as the matured 



generally Negros, male and female, with wide-mouthed sacks suspended from their shoulders or waists pass between v 
from the open pods. Each person will pick an average of from 200 to 300 pounds per day The co ton ^tn«sf ic 
the first year of growth. It is usually cut down annually, but if allowed to grow it will attain a height of five oi six fe 



being marked with a purple spot near the base 
cotton wool is seen issuing from it in all directions 



cotton is well opened. The" ^"first picked, before the autumnaf rains have dirtied it, and the October frost turned ^ yellow is the best, and must be ginned and 
packed by H to command the best price in market. After having been picked the cotton is dried, and separated from the seeds. 




*«»....» r>««tlA stands at the entrance to Havana Harbor and is supposed to guard the chief city of Cuba-the " Queen of the Antilles "-from attack by the sea. 

MorrO Castle stands at me -entrance l " "■".,, • al)v f orm idable, as its guns are much inferior in weight and equipment to those which the cruisers 

It is an ancient structure of historic > n , l f ^f'^^enses ar^streng thened howeve , S land batferies which line both shores of the harbor and extend for some distance along 
and battle-ships of our navy carry. ™« harbor defenses ^J^ ened the b^ri/s could be silenced by the American fleet and the city of Havana reduced in two hours, 
the coast on each side of the ^^.f^^-^ZM^S^Litors, while the dynamite cruiser Vesuvius would be used to clear the harbor of hidden mines, in order 
The heavy work of bombardmen would fall on the battfe ^'P^ and monitors w y ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ concussion> n exploding 

^S^Ito^S ^^TS'Z^^S^Z by the Spanish. In the picture^ steamship Ofr* is shown outward bound and loaded with 

American refugees. 




The Spanish 

and the Infantas Maria-de 
of France. The Princess 
made in certain quarters in 
an infant king. Sentiment 
whose pitiful cries for help 
Spain even' opportunity to 
determine the question of 
to perpetuate the decadent 



Royal Family consists of the Queen Regent, Maria Christina, an Austrian princess and widow of King Alfonso the XII. ■ Alfonso the XIII. 
■las Mercedes, born in 1880, and Maria Theresa, born in 1882. The Spanish reigning family are Bourbons, descendants of Kin" Louis Xiv' 
Eulalie, an aunt of the young king, visited the Chicago Exposition in 1893, and was the recipient of many social attentions An effort has been 
the United States to awaken sympathy for the Spanish cause by claiming that Americans are ungallant in making war upon a widowed queen and 
of this kind, however, is entirely misplaced, and would be much better bestowed if expended upon the thousands of starving women and children 
are ringing in the ears of the American people from the desolate island which lies but sixty miles from our coast. The United States has given 
withdraw from Cuba, or to make such concessions there to common humanity and decency as would enable the Cuban and Snanish forces to 
Cuba's freedom in accordance with the recognized methods of modern warfare. Brutal savagery cannot longer be tolerated bv this country simnlv 
Bourbon dynasty in Spam. ' -™ u '' =""'fv 




Alfonso XIII., King of Spain, seems to be as unfortunate as the 
number"' n" which forms part of his title, is popularly supposed to be. He 
Suborn May 17, 1886, and is therefore nearly twelve years of age. His throne 
s threatened, not only with the revolt in Cuba and the Spanish possessions in the 
Philippine Islands, but with revolutions at home, the most dangerous of which 
em-mates from a party known as the Carlists, who recognize the second cousin 
of the young king" Don Carlos, the Pretender, as their nghtful sovereign. Don 
Carlos is a refugee in Belgium, where he now watches the progress of events ,n the 
Spanish possessions. 



Governor-General, Blanco succeeded General Weyler as Gov- 
ernor-General of Cuba when the' latter was recalled to Spam, virtually at the 
demand of the United States upon the representations of Consul Genera Lee and 
although General Blanco has done but little to alleviate the suffering in the island 
it is but justice to say that the probabilities are he would have done more had 
it been possible for him to have done so. General Blanco's position m Havana 
is a very precarious one, owing to the fact that many of the officers under him are 
sympathizers with General Weyler, and are eager for revenge because of the latter s 
recall to Spain. 




General Weyler, who succeeded General Martinez Campos as 
Governor-General of the Island of Cuba, will live in history with such fiends 
in human shape as the Roman emperors Caligula and Nero, and the savage Hun, 
Attila. The order of reconcentration, which General Weyler issued, required 
that all non-combatants should assemble in the cities of Cuba and not pass beyond 
the military lines, even to cultivate their farms, upon penalty of death. The result 
was, according to official reports made to the United States Government, 400,000 
men, women and children died of starvation and disease in little over a year. For 
this Weyler is directly responsible. 



Captain Charles D. Sigsbee will rank in naval annals with 
Farragut and Perry, and other commanders who defended the honor of their country's 
flag in the most trying ordeals. We feel that an apology is due Captain Sigsbee 
for placing his picture by the side of that of Weyler, but it was done for the purpose 
of contrasting the features of the gallant American with that of Spain's villainous 
emissary, by whose order, or at least with whose knowledge and consent, the 
Maine was destroyed, as was clearly established in Consul General Lee's testimony 
before the Senate Committee. Captain Sigsbee has been given command of the 
cruiser St, fiiu/, recently of the American Line. 





General Woodford, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to the Court of Spain, has been active in the events which have recently 
been transpiring and which have finally resulted in the ultimatum sent to the 
Spanish Government on April 20th by President McKinley. General Woodford 
was intrusted with the delicate duty of presenting this important document to the 
Spanish Prime Minister, Sagasta, but before he could do so his passports were sent 
to him whereupon he immediately closed the American Embassy and started for 
Paris. ' General Woodford has worked hard to prevent a rupture, in accordance with 
the wishes of the Administration. 



Prime Minister Sagasta has proven himself to be an adept in 
the art of diplomatic delay, and by his clever moves has more than once almost 
succeeded in placing the United States in a dangerous position during the course 
of the American-Spanish controversy. He succeeded Canovas, who was assassi- 
nated, and he is doing everything he can to support what the Spaniards call their 
" honor," thus allaying popular wrath at home and at the same time enlisting the 
sympathy of other European governments. Like a good lawyer, he has made 
the best of a very bad case, but without appreciable benefit to his country. 




m nm life The lottery companies are chartered by the Government and their drawings are anxiously awaited by the 
Lottery Playing is another f eatu «* Havana 1 £e ; ^""^ vi , bring them a fortune ; Lottery tickets are sold in Havana at street stands as openly 
thousands who invest each time a drawing is announced n ckets * h ' ch ™> ^ n p tries of the ° W orld whose Government continues to license this demoralizing form of gambling, 
as newspapers or periodicals are in this country Spain ^is : one ^ot the e ^ ^ ^ ^.^ ^^ ^ ^^ tQ ^ ^ ^ ^.^ residence in Honduras . The 

It will be remembered that a few years ago the Louisiana Matt i* y Louisiana State Lottery annually expended in order to retain the great privilege 

profit to the managers of an institution of this kind ^^s^ere . ven by this company annually to charity and other thousands were expended upon the levees or embank- 

t^V^ui^X^^°^^^^^^ oi ,he state ' but pubHc ° pini ° n in this c ° umry w " t0 ° §reat to ng " tolerate Presence 

lottery octopus. 




It is pleasant to turn from the subject o£ torturing dumb brutes and gambling to that o£ Cuban womanhood, one of the fairest types of which 

, ' _..._ ,, „:_..„„...„„ ;„i,„„ j„ the courtyard of a Cuban residence, and the fair senonta 1: - -' .■■*■■■ u-.lm !- 

this striking and characteristic scene. The 



by a wealth of tropii 
1 11. i nulla which she wears is the only head covering 

as worn by the 



is repro^uSd"^" a^hotograph" ^Zlvl" The picture" was'taken in the courtyard of a Cuban'residence, and the fair sefiorita is s 
T t l!w ml k P s a pTcturescme and appropriate background for this striking and characteristic scene. I he lace mantilla wl 
S the Havana won en wear when they stroFun^heir gardens or promenade upon the Prado carefully chaperoned by some elderly relative The mantUla 
W™ womrT S r S vmphony in lace, being coquettishly thrown over the head, its ends folded like a scarf about the neck and shoulders, hal concealing the charms of its 
Havana women lb a ^P^7 ™ e g 1 y ^ unfamiHar with the daint bonnets and tasteful hats of their Northern sisters, for the contrary 

Tquite the ca';. T "S Paris fashfons are imported direct by the Havana shopkeepers and disposed of at truly American pnces.to the wives and daughters of the wealthy 
sugar planters. 




A R.,11 Fi^ht to the mind of the average Spaniard is the highest form of intellectual and physical recreation. Just as baseball is a National American game 
v ,,£•?"■ J % h £J«i w! nastime These brutal and degrading contests are conducted under Government supervision and are a relic of the barbarism which 
so bull-bait.ng is the Nat.ona Spanish P^ime ln ^™ ta ^ n ? « the S times of Nero, when hundreds of wild beasts and innocent Christians were slaughtered in the vast 
characterized the decadent civil.zat on ot *^£^ ^P 1 ^ selected for bu il.fi g htin g> and thousands of spectators gather to witness the sickening spectacle. The 
amphithea res l ° ma ^.f wr ^eTtorture are usuaTlv bred especially fo/the purpose, but it sometimes happens that a bull refuses to fight and seeks to escape, whereupon the 
animals selected for this wretched ° r ' u f ar ^ Xrinc s nave soaded the animal into desperation, when as likely as not he will plunge his horns into the trembling side of some 
^^^^^^T^%^^X^^t'^ £ *e act -Wi *« — d into the wounded b'ull, thus delivering the death-blow. 




,ii ,, to ,„ i. the Drincinal hotel in Havana and is headquarters for Americans sojourning in the city It is pleasantly situated opposite the 
The Hotel Inglaterra s the principal notei in ™ General Lee resided at the Hotel Inglaterra during his stay in Havana and was sitting on the porch 
Central Park. The building next tc > ■ is ^J^^ [llurninated the heavens'and which was immediately followed by the two explosions 

on the night of the explosion of the Maine from which he swmM Ing laterra on the occasion of his recent visit to Havana, whither he went 

one of which preceded the other by about ten i 5 ™ : ^° r st f^- n ° Re concentrados and to look into other phases of the Cuban situation. The Tacon Theatre has 

^^xs^^j^^^^^^^l^^^^^^ in which ii is scarc ei ^ ecL ^ to say that the factionof which former Govemor - 

Generaf Weyler was the leader was always the most noisy. 




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Th India Palms which line the approach to the " Quinta De Palatinos," at the Cerro, are justly famous as among the most beautiful in the environs 
^f Hl nni Their trunks are tall and straight and rise to the height of sixty or seventy-five feet without a branch to mar the symmetry of their appearance, until at the top 
they burst' into a plume of waving foliage. Their appearance, at a distance, calls to mind the lines of the poet Kernan. who speaks of- 

" Oases, with their plumy palms, carved green against the skies." 

The country residence to which this avenue of Palms leads is twelve miles from Havana and is one of the justly celebrated show places of the Capital. It was formerly 
the r>ronertv of the Count of Palatinos, but is now owned bv Madame Rosa Albreu, Countess of Palatinos, who resides in Pans. There are many magnificent estates in Cuba, 
of which this is a fair tvpe but it will take much time and 'much money to restore them to what they were before the inauguration of the struggle for Cuban freedom. 




SPANISH HISSION NEAR SANTIAGO. 

The history of the Spanish missions is usually one with the story of occupation and settlement, A corps of priests was with every expedition of discovery 
and every army of conquests. Planting the cross on the occupied territory was part of the ceremony of possession. The Spaniards were at once the most religions 
and the most cruel and avaricious of any discoverers, explorers, conquerors, or settlers in the history of the world. The first thing done on landing in a new territory 
was to plant the cross, second to erect a fort, and third to build a mission house. Conquering, converting and enslaving the natives were usually one process. If 
either part was refused extermination immediately ensued ; if they fully yielded, slavery brought about final extermination in a few months or years. Careful estimates 
made bv Las Casas the Dominican priest, who gave the labor of a long life to the mitigation of the dreadful severity of his countrymen, places the number 
of natives exterminated in the West Indies alone at more than 15,000,' 00. In fifty years after the discovery of Cuba by Columbus there were not enough 
natives left in Cuba to work the few mines that had been opened. General Gomez takes pleasure in relating the story of the Cuban natives who placed all their gold 
in a vessel and sunk it in the sea saving that they were burying the Spanish God. 




CATTLE SCENE IN EASTERN CUBA. 

This photograph shows a picturesque scene near the coast shore of Rio del Bocanao, in Santiago province. The spot is an idyllic one surrounded by rolling, 
wooded country, rich in soil and luxuriant in vegetation. In the early settlements, four hundred years ago, cattle raising was one of the principal industries, and 
great herds roamed over the mountains until ownership was disputed and indiscriminate slaughter of the wild animals became a pastime. Since more than nine tenths 
of Cuba is wild land and the mountain slopes, almost to the top, is fine pasturage, under proper encouragement cattle and sheep raising would grow to be of immense 
value. The mountain sides are healthful and free from all the miasmic influences of the swampy lands on parts of the sea coasts. There ia no reason why Cuba 
should not be the garden spot of the world as well as the pearl of the Antilles. The inhabitants have the curious customs and are under peculiar conditions of the 
Spanish social system, but they are peaceful and agreeable as neighbors. They are indolent and labor is cheap, but with the paralyzing influence of Spanish taxation 
eliminated there is nothing to prevent Cuba from becoming one of the most habitable and profitable parts of the globe. 



L 




CUBAN FARH SCENE 



THE MOUNTAINS. 



The 



This nicturesque scene is in the southeastern part of Cuba, near Baiquiri and the American mines, where many pretty farms are nestled among the hills. 

V f nmducts of these mountain farms are peas beans, sweet potatoes and tobacco. This mountainous section of southeastern Cuba is the most picturesque part of 
*i • 1 nd ind the farms which lie among the hills form many interesting pictures. This mountain region is not only filled with magnificent scenery, but it affords 

• VtrTrhJ lands and considerable water power. This section also possesses great mineral wealth, and there are mines producing iron and copper. Silver ore is 
ncn la^ufe - ^^ wor ked to any great extent. The entire eastern part of the island is rich in minerals, but the tax on mining has always been so 

found m some P^> . n tWg direction ha3 been paralyzed. Some of these mines were opened by the natives before the time of Columbus and all told not a year's 
woriZhas been expended on them since, though they are known to contain valuable deposits of ore. 



\ 




CUBAN SUGAR PLANTATION. 

Next to cotton one of the great industries of the tropical South is tbe raising of sugar cane. The photograph above represents a sugar plantation in Cuba. 
near Havana with the sugar cane partly harvested. Sugar cane is perennial grass, with solid stems of six to twenty feet high. The leaves are three feet or more 
leneth and three inches broad ' The branches are notched or jointed, bearing at each joint two flowers. The sap or juice of the plant contains from fifteen to 
twenty oer cent of sugar It has not been found in the wild state in any part of the world, and there is much doubt as to its native country, which is supposed to 
be Bengal The cultivation of the sugar cane is of very ancient origin, and is mentioned as early as the commencement of the Christian era. In the ninth contun the 
cultivation had extended to Persia and to Spain. The sugar growing district in Cuba can be extended many times Us present area and be made many times as profit- 
able by intelligent cultivation. 




SPANISH MOSS OF SOUTHERN LATITUDES. 

THIS moss hangs in festoons from the forest tree . in warn^imates ^iU^ & e balconies of houses ifggrf on them, ^se^s^aUe^o 
live for a considerable time suspended in the avr, without iPP"*^ "°£™|£? bl a s oon a he gentle, preparatory rain begins to fall, it revives and becomes 
winter of northern climes, this parasitic plant w.thers, and seems to be dead ,*>««« s0 ™ the S count ry into a magnificent hothouse. This moss is attached 

fullv developed into its glorious existence by the ceaseless ^^^^^^^^^^ warm vapors that fill the forests. Stagnant water is 
amid gigantic grasses, ferns and n^hetes chmta ° ^ e J;£ ]o . C o -Weh family this moss belongs,, by which they cling to the.r supports 

i^f 0US tne T^ rrrp^me^tyit Xc^e^^alSs exnibit detached fibres and simple walls. The moss is grey,sh ,n co.or, and wil. hang 
Ses'toons f;oIn baches that Je fifty and seventy-live feet above the ground. 



J 




SPANISH 



PANTEONS. 

of its dead. 



Danteons Tlu^v °L tl, P § ^ alactenstlcs of a C0Unt] T ls ^ m ° de ° f dis P osin S of its dead. In most Spanish-American?8ountries the cemeteries are called 

KntZ in thU »\ , t ♦ ■ impression of vast mausoleums, being enclosed by great walls containing chambers where the bodies are deposited The 

Panteon m thu, illustration comprises ten acres around which is a solid wall ten feet high and several feet in thickness. Thousands of bodies are deposited in the 

chambers of the Panteon, where they lie until the expiration of the chamber leases when the bones are placed in an immense sub-cemetery This gre 

"f' e , ^ a wm(Jln g stairway. It is an uncanny place, containing the bones of some 30,000 persons who have passed beyond the pale This reD( 
900 feet long, over twenty feet high and twenty fe, t wide. "" 



Panteon in this illuMn.n,,,, „„„!„,„„ „,, ;l ,.„. s : „,„„ l ,| u!ll ,. h ,,, , s ,,| i(l u , lM ,,,, , , ( ,„,.„ mii m vc , iui irr| m |IMI , un ,._ ,, . |1|(| , iH h ,,,.,,,. ,„,.,,,,, „, l(|i 

reat charnel hou»e 
._ repository is a room 
I he room is arched and well lighted. Bones and skulls are piled up in this vast storehouse' indisrn.m 

but e the a p n resent '* t0 """^ KeVel ' eDCe ^ ^ ""^ ° f the deBd U DOt *<*»*«*>***> ° f Spanish nature. An emotional peopm caTs ^nothing 



{ 




CUBAN PASSENGER TRAIN. 



The roads running south from Havana pass through some delightful farm scenes. The one shown in this view is representative of the capabilities of the island for 
attractive homes. It also shows the luxuriant specimens of the families of Cacti, and the antiquated engines used on the short poorly constructed railways. All the 
semi-tropical vegetables and fruits grow here with the least possible care; and, when reasonable sanitary and salutary precautions are taken; the climate is healthful 
and the air invigorating. The rains of the summer are veritable down-pours but of short duration. They come suddenly and cease as suddenly. However, only a 
certain portion of the year is thus afflicted and a mitigating circumstance is that they almost invariably come at a given hour of the day. In comparison, less water 
falls to the inch in Havana than in New Orleans and the climate is described by official experts as having many more features of healthfulness. Back in the mountains 
the climate and conditions are very similar to that of Southern Tennessee. In four centuries Cuba has gained less in wealth than many of the new territories of the 
United States gained in half a generation. Doubtless when a stable and equitable government is assured for Cuba, it will flourish more in a half a score years than 
it has in two centuries. 




SOUTH-WEST CUBA. 

The above is a good representation of the Cuban villages in the province of Pinar del Rio in southwestern Cuba. The houses are rude in the extreme H,p 
more pretentious ones being built of sun-dried brick, and the smaller ones some of them constructed almost entirely of reeds and grasses; the roofs are thatched' with 
reeds. In the foreground may be seen the cactus hedges, or fences, which surround the houses and villages, growing sometimes to a height of fifteen to twenty feet 
Compared w lt h the possibilities of production, the industrial condition of Cuba is yet at an early age. The natural indolence of the people, due in part to cZate and 
heredity, has precluded the advancement which has been made in other portions of the North American continent. Cubans are a mixed people composed of ™Z! 
types. The natives proper present a carious study to the traveler. The daily life of the Cuban is not one of ceaseless toil. The warm climate and the nTZ 
productiveness of the soil make it possible for him to live with little labor, and this the average Cuban does. 



L 




EL CANEY, CUBA. 

This photograph shows one of the typical old villages of Southeast Cuba. These villages with their crumbling walls show on every hand the signs of age, 
which the indolent inhabitants take little pains to repair. The architecture in these villages, with the exception of the churches, which are often magnificent struct- 
ures is of the rudest kind, consisting of foil* square walls of stone or sun-dried brick, with thatched roofs. This picturesque old village, and the nigged mountains 
•irclinf it presents many rare attractions for the traveler. Situated just out from Santiago on the little railroad about fifteen miles long, running from Santiago to 
San Luis" it affords the tourist a good idea of the old Spanish village, made when St. Jago was the capital of Cuba. 




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SACRO MONTE. 

Xfarly everv lai-e burying ground in Spanish dominions has its sacred shrine. This place near Havana has been the resort for ages of those desiring to call 
• I,p sn IS? S Z7Jof&l™™Xme wish or enterprise As every fort situated upon a rise of ground is called Moro Castle, so every bit of high ground ,8 
Wr? Morite AT curious cSenHn human religions to see such devotion everywhere among the Latin races with every turn in town or country covered w.th 
cm se shrines cmnels and wording places, and yet ignorance, avarice and cruelty are the prevailing traits. The Aztec priests loved flowers passionately and yet 

JO^toiSt of Civilization are found among those whose motives were solely religious, and yet Spamsh government w.th all >ts unrivaled 
rapacity has beeu a union of the ecclesiastical and military. 




WATERWAY NEAR BAHIA HONDA, CUBA. 

This old waierway forms a transportage for bringing out fruits and vegetables to the fort. Many native families live in their flat boats the year round in a 
simplicity and ease which are contentment and animal happiness unalloyed. The flat boats are the cheapest and most primitive kind, propelled by poles. Only the 
least amount of exertion is needed, and the time is passed away in eating, sleeping, and gambling. It seems that where nature's abundance requires the least amount 
of labor, the people are invariably the most indolent, ignorant, unprogressive. If Cuba becomes free to all classes of immigrants under laws that are effective and 
stable for their protection, a new era will dawn over that fertile land, and its resources will be made to serve their purpose in civilization. As it is, neither natives 
nor foreigners profit by the rich territory in which the form of government has made impossible all incentives toward the development of the natural resources. 
Under proper influences, the laziness of the natives would yield to thriftiness, and the primitive boats would be replaced by steam vessels. 




VIEW OF BAY ACROSS FROH MANILA. 

This beautiful tropical scene is across the bay from Manila and near Balanga from which in its maneuvers, Commodore Dewey's squadron bore down upon 
Admiral MoS's fleet Ttwn up under protection from the batteries on the eastern shore. The Spanish Admiral was sharply condemned by his superiors m Spam 
ft Z Lvmg gone out to meet his adversary in the open bay and come to close quarters where the aim of his gunners could have been more occur* te The re was long 
talk in Spain of court-martialing the commander for cowardice, but the fact that not a flag was struck and every ship went down with colo.s flying acquits he 
Soaniards of al charge of cowardice, The superior accuracy of Commodore Dewey's gunners proves conclusively that the Spanish Admiral made the best out of his 
situation That memorable May morning marked an era in the history of the United States by the heroic deed in those calm waters, b 500 miles from San Franco, 
CaWornia. ^ hSTKe-St triangular in appearance and about 30 miles across at its widest part. Its entrance is about e.ght miles wide at ,ts narrowest place. 
Properly fortified it would lie impregnable. 



is3 




NATIVE HUT IN LUZON, PHILIPPINES. 

A good representation is shown above of the typical farm house, or Philippine farm. The farm shown in this photograph is situated near the city of 
Davilican, in the eastern part of Luzon. The principal products raised in this section are sugar, tobacco, pineapples, and coffee. The latter grows very abundantly, 
and is of a superior quality. The houses or huts are constructed of reeds, set up and down and woven together with vines. The roofs are usually thatched 
with palm leaves. No nails whatever are used in the construction of these primitive abodes, the leaves being entirely woven together with vines. The chief diet of 
these native farmers is fruit, and their mode of life is most primitive. The farming implements of the natives are generally of a very rude order, but enterprising 
foreigners have in some sec ions pushed into this country, and are working a great transformation in the farming methods. Coffee requires from three to five years 
after planting to realize a full crop. Coffee plants are grown in a nursery, an! usually transplanted when one year old. 




FOREST SCENE IN THE PHILIPPINES. 

This puotooraph represents a tropical scene in the coffee lands found in the forests of Luzon. The illustration shows the rich tropical vegetation which grows 
in this place and in the foreground is one of the primitive bridges constructed by the natives and in use in this section of the country. The forests and vegetation 
in some parts of the Philippines are beautiful in the extreme. These tropical forests in this region of Manila are picturesque almost beyond description. The 
trees are festooned with moss and illuminated' with bright flowers, and the landscape is changed from fields of bright green sugar cane to groves of dark green coffee. 
The growth of all kinds of vegetation is luxurious in the extreme. Although the summers are hot and the air humid, there is little discomfort when one becomes 
acclimated. There are poisonous reptiles, but they do not abound. Harmless animals are the rule, vicious ones the exception. 




STREET SCENE IN BATANOAS. 

The accompanying photograph shows a street scene in the shambling, but picturesque little village of Batangas, which is located a few miles from the 
city of Manila The village of Batangas is composed mostly of thatched roofed residences, or flat-roofed gambling places, in which games of chance on a small 
scale are in progress the year around. There is little to attract in the place aside from the quaint thatched houses and the picturesque cactus hedges, for the 
plice as is usual with native villages, is dirty and illy built. The people think more of a fighting cock than an American farmer does of bu horse, and the 
cock-pit holds more interest for most of them than the fate of the islands. However, the way they rallied to the rebel standard after the battle of Manila 
seems to indicate that their petty gambling has for a time at least been forgotten. 




PLANTING RICE IN THE PHILIPPINES. 

^ ^ ta-ta of -^"SSitTK'i^ rSSt^CTS^^^^^^E^ «S%« wUl bear good crops of rice if they are situafcd 
Z as I TJZ Kt^i^S^t water is t Jn let throng, the gate, and kept upon the land fronr four to si, da y s, until the grams heg.n to 



swell and sprout. 




BAYOU SCENE IN THE PH LIPP1NES. 

The low grounds in the bottoms of the streams flowing into Manila bay abound in channels filled with sluggish water, similar to the bayous of the lower 
Mississippi. These bayous, which in many places are deserted river beds, are scattered over the alluvial tracts of former streams. They are inhabited by wild foul 
and abound in many varieties of fish. During the summer rains the streams overflow into these bayous. The low country around is then entirely submerged, and 
extensive seas spread out on either side, the streams themselves being marked by the clear, broad band of water in most of the forests that appear above it. 
The lavish abundance of nature in fish, fowl and fruit makes primitive life easy and the natives have little inclination to accept those higher forms of civilization 
which require more energy and labor. The people are easily governed and it has required the severest forms of oppression to drive them I., the fierce rebellion which 
they have waged for several years. 




I 



MISSION NEAR MANiLA. 

This quaint mission is located near the city of Manila. The labor on these houses was performed by the natives working out their taxes at about live cents a 
day. The monks are slothful, well-fed persons who perform their perfunctory duties in daily routine without animation or spirit. They welcome any stranger who 
can bring news of the outside world, as they have no books or periodicals for diversion, or instruction. The lassitude prevailing in these climates soon possesses all 
comers and food is so cheap that a servant will provide the best the country affords at forty cents a day for a large family and pay himself good wages out of the 
proceeds remaining over his purchases. Of the inhabitants included in the tax census fewer than one in a hundred attend any kind of a school. The chief diversion 
of Hie monks in the mission houses is in attending their gardens, cultivated by their servants, and gathering the fine flowers which this tropical country affords in abun- 
dai. . j. These numerous ecclesiastical houses are considered somewhat in the nature of free public taverns, as a stranger coming hungry to one will go in and order his 
dinner and after partaking will ride away without a thought as to any encroachment or the need of any payment. If it is night, he will order a room arranged for him 
and his horse taken care of without question or seeing the proprietor of the place. It is the ideal place of idleness and freedom from any care but the pestiferous ants 
and the gatherer of taxes. 



I^H 




FARn SCENE, PHILIPPINES. 

The foot of the Luzon raDge between Manila and the east coast is a garden spot of luxurious nature. Away from the meddlesome officials whose sole business 
was to extend the annoyances of Spanish greed, the people here had only to contend with the omnivorous and omnipresent tax gatherer. Since enterprise has always 
been taxed to death no one cares to be enterprising. Living is as cheap as the dirt and a servant at a salary of a dollar a week is enabled to support his wife and 
children pay his own board and expenses, indulge in the common luxury of a fighting cock, pay his gambling debts, have enough pocket change for all ordinary per- 
sonal expenses pay the regulation government tax of one tenth of all his earnings, and give his required portion for the perquisites of the priest. Most of the poorer 
classes can not marry because the fee that must be paid to the government added to the fee required by the priest is more money than they ever expect to see at one 
time Under a Government that encourages industry instead of crushing it by taxing every mouthful of food and every vegetable, fowl, or animal owned or prepared 
forthe market, these farm scenes would multiply and the Philippines would become one of the most productive spots of the earth. Spanish occupancy is a blight on 
any soil, an incubus on the hopes and energies of every land that nation has ever controlled. 






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